Ice in Hudson Bay and the Northwest Passages

August 7th, 2022 |

GOES-16 True Color RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) True Color RGB images from the CSPP GeoSphere site (above) showed patches of remnant thick first-year ice in southern Hudson Bay, Canada (off the coast of Ontario) on 07 August 2022. The diurnal tide cycle within Hudson Bay was evident in the ice motion during the period 1230-2020 UTC.

Farther to the north, a similar tidal ebb and flow of ice within the Northwest Passages was also seen in a longer animation from 1200-2150 UTC (below).

GOES-16 True Color RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

A map of Ice Concentration Departure From Normal from the Canadian Ice Service (below) indicated that a significant portion of the ice concentration in southern Hudson Bay was above normal for the date (darker shades of blue) — while most ice in the Northwest Passages was closer to normal concentration.

Ice concentration departure from normal on 01 August [click to enlarge]

Record 24-hour rainfall in Sioux Falls, South Dakota

August 7th, 2022 |

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]       

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector (from 0600-0800 UTC) and 5-minute CONUS Sector (from 0801-1301 UTC) GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed clusters of thunderstorms that developed and moved eastward across parts of South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa on 07 August 2022. In fact, these storms contributed to a new 24-hour rainfall record (5.44 inches) being set at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Much of this record rainfall occurred during the 0600-1300 UTC period shown by the GOES-16 imagery.

Shortly after flash flooding had been reported in Sioux Falls, a toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 ABI “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images valid at 0826 UTC (below) revealed that the coldest NOAA-20 cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures near Sioux Falls at that time were -83ºC, compared to -74ºC with GOES-16 (identical color enhancements were applied to both images). The northwestward shift in GOES-16 image cloud-top features was associated with parallax (which in this case was a distance of 22 km for a cloud-top height of 50,000 feet).

NOAA-20 Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images valid at 0826 UTC [click to enlarge]  

The MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product at 0300, 0600, 0900 and 1200 UTC — visualized using RealEarth — is shown below. TPW values near Sioux Falls peaked at 57 mm (or 2.24 inches) at 0900 UTC.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product at 03, 06, 09 and 12 UTC (with plots of surface fronts/troughs) [click to enlarge]

Improvements to the CSPP Geosphere website

August 4th, 2022 |
Nighttime Microphysics RGB over the upper Midwest, 0721 to 0816 UTC on 4 August 2022

The CSPP Geosphere website has recently been upgraded. CSPP Geosphere uses data from the GOES Re-Broadcast (GRB) data stream Those data are processed on an on-site Kubernetes cluster that produces full-resolution GOES-East/GOES-West images that are quickly and fluidly zoomable and pannable. In addition, recent software and hardware upgrades mean that processing is faster. GOES-West data (either GOES-17 or GOES-18 during interleave periods such as the one occurring from early August until 6 September 2022) are now available. The default imagery shown remains Nighttime Microphysics RGB at night, as shown above, and sharpened, Rayleigh-corrected True-Color imagery during the day (as shown in the image below).

CSPP Geosphere allows users to save off mp4 videos of animations as shown above (with the default number of frames, 12, although any number of frames can be displayed in an animation), and also individual png frames, as shown below. The mp4 animations and individual png frames are created on the client machine; creation speed will depend on a user’s computer’s resources and resolution. In addition, the site now includes a default lat/lon readout that tracks the cursor, and a searchbox that will allow a user to center the image near a location at near-maximum zoom (‘Manhattan’, for example, as shown below — after zooming out one step). Latitude/Longitude and Coastlines/Borders can be turned on and off.

CSPP Geosphere rendering of true-color imagery over New York City, 1340 UTC on 4 August 2022 (Click to enlarge)

The example below shows 48 frames of GOES-18 data over the northern Pacific Ocean (link; CSPP Geosphere lets users easily share the url used to create the imagery). Note the abundant smoke over the central USA at the end of the animation, and the sun glint over Asia at the start. Barcode noise (also here) in Band 7 (a component of the Nighttime Microphysics RGB) is apparent, but faint.

GOES-18 Night Microphysics/True Color combination, 0530 – 1320 UTC on 4 August 2022

GOES-16 Imagery, below (from this CSPPGeosphere link) shows the turbid waters of the Amazon flowing northward into the tropical Atlantic.

GOES-16 True Color imagery, 1110-1340 UTC on 4 August 2022

The GeoSphere website and back end were created using SSEC-internal funds. The CSPPGeo GOES Re-Broadcast (GRB) processing software and CSPPGeo Geo2Grid software used in the back end were created with funding from NOAA.

30-second imagery of severe thunderstorms across the Upper Midwest

August 3rd, 2022 |

GOE S-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with time-matched SPC Storm Reports plotted in red [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

Overlapping 1-minute GOES-16 (GOES-East) Mesoscale Domain Sectors provided 30-second “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above), which included time-matched plots of SPC Storm Reports — showing clusters of thunderstorms that moved eastward across parts of Illinois, Indiana and Lower Michigan on 03 August 2022.

The corresponding 30-second GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (below) indicated that the coldest overshooting tops exhibited infrared brightness temperatures around -80ºC (violet pixels within areas of brighter white enhancement).

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with time-matched SPC Storm Reports plotted in cyan [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

In a toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 ABI “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images valid at 1924 UTC (below), the northwestward shift in GOES-16 image cloud-top features was associated with parallax (which in this case was a distance around 18-19km for the maximum Cloud Top Heights of 50,000-52,000 feet). The coldest NOAA-20 cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures at that time were around -84ºC (over far southern Lake Michigan), compared to around -77ºC with GOES-16 (identical color enhancements were applied to both images).

NOAA-20 Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images valid at 1924 UTC [click to enlarge]

However, in a toggle between NOAA-20 Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) derived product images valid at 1924 UTC (below), the coldest sensed cloud-top temperature values over far southern Lake Michigan were closer (-84ºC with NOAA-20, vs -80ºC with the GOES-16 CTT product).

NOAA-20 Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and GOES-16 Cloud Top Temperature derived product images valid at 1924 UTC [click to enlarge]