GOES-18 ABI Imagery Comparisons

May 13th, 2022 |

NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18. GOES-T was launched on March 1, 2022. (see the GOES-T launch as GOES-16 and GOES-17 monitored the rocket signature). GOES-18 is the third (of four) in the GOES-R series and is currently located above the equator at approximately 90W. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 after going through extensive post-launch testing. Also, see this CIMSS Satellite Blog post or this Satellite Liaison Blog post.

GOES-18 Compared to other GOES

Remapped GOES-16, -17 and -18 ABI data from 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

While it is still very early in the post-launch test period, good qualitative agreement has been shown to other GOES imagers, except when comparing to GOES-17 during times it is affected by the Loop Heat Pipe issue. Of course, due to parallax and other reasons, there are expected to be differences, especially at larger view angles. The above loop as a mp4 and animated gif. Or versions that toggle between GOES-18 and GOES-16 only (mp4 and animated gif).

GOES-18 and GOES-16 Band 10 images at 14 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 images of the western United States collected by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the left, while the GOES-16 image is on the right. Note that the data are in the same projection. Warmer brightness temperatures are mapped to warmer colors. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

Remapped GOES-17 and GOES-18 Band 10 images at 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 image of the United States collected by the ABI on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the right, while the GOES-17 image is on the left. This 2-panel “water vapor” image shows overall agreement, with less noise shown on GOES-18 compared with GOES-17. These GOES-18 ABI are early images, calibration improvements are possible. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

3-panel Comparisons (GOES-17, -18, -16)

These 3.9 mircometer band comparisons are thanks to Scott Bachmeier. Direct links for the CA and NM cases of a CIMSS Satellite Blog.

ABI Instrument Response Functions

“Flight Model 3” or GOES-18 ABI Spectral Response Functions for the 10 infrared bands.

The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The instrument response functions can be found both on CIMSS and Calibration Working Group sites.

H/T

Thanks to the many (thousands) who made the GOES-18 ABI possible. These are GOES-18 ABI are early images (preliminary and non-operational, future calibration improvements are possible. geo2grid and McIDAS-X software was used in generating these images. More about GOES-16 and GOES-17.

Early ABI Images from GOES-18

May 12th, 2022 |

NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18 (including this 2-min video). GOES-T was launched on March 1st. In fact, both GOES-16 and GOES-17 monitored the rocket signature. GOES-18 is the third in the GOES-R series and is currently located above approximately 90W. Soon GOES-18 will move to a “near West” position. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 after going through many tests. Before that, the ABI on GOES-18 will become the operational imager during two GOES-17 Loop Heat Pipe times. Also see this satellite liaison post.

Spectral Loop of 16 bands (from the Full Disk sector)

A true color composite image, along with all 16 spectral bands of the preliminary, non-operational GOES-18 ABI on May 5, 2022.

The above loop as an mp4 and animated gif. The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are also ABI band “fact sheets” in Spanish and French.

Another view of the 16 spectral bands of the ABI, both as an mp4 and animated gif. Or see this loop of the true color imagery during the day and an infrared window at night.

The 16 spectral bands of the ABI on May 5, 2022 at 18 UTC.

The “low-level” water vapor band (10) is very important. A loop showing 2 low’s over North America.

GOES-18 ABI “water vapor” band 10 (7.3 micrometers) loop from May 5 and 6, 2022. (click to play)

Of course the ABI Full Disk sectors also views over much of the disk, including of Hudson Bay with a day snow fog RGB (mp4) and South America (fog and suspended sediment).

Ice and clouds over Hudson Bay from GOES-18 RGB on May 5, 2022. (click to play)
Fog along the west coast of South America on May 5, 2022 as seen by the GOES-18 ABI day snow fog RGB. (click to play)
True color imagery showing the suspended sediment of the South American coast on May 5, 2022. (click to play)
A combined full disk GOES-18 loop over a day (true color and longwave window) from May 6 and 7, 2022.

ABI 16-Panel (CONUS region)

The 16 spectral bands of the (Preliminary/Non-operational) GOES-18 ABI from May 5, 2022. (Click to play)
The 16 spectral bands of the (Preliminary/Non-operational) GOES-18 ABI from May 6, 06 UTC to May 7, 06 UTC. (Click to play)

The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. GOES-18 image covering the contiguous United States collected by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) in 16 spectral bands on May 5, 2022.  This 16-panel image shows the two visible, four near-infrared and 10 infrared channels on the ABI. The visible near-IR bands are gray-colored, while the infrared bands have the warmer brightness temperatures mapped to warmer colors. The different appearance of each band is due to how each band reflects or absorbs radiation. Each spectral band was scanned at approximately the same time, starting at approximately 18 UTC. The above mp4 loop and one of the frames.

Meso-scale sectors

The ABI scans two smaller meso-scale regions every 60 seconds, which provides 30-sec imagery if the regions overlap. These channels help forecasters and others distinguish phenomena such as clouds, water vapor, fires, smoke, dust, ice, land/sea surface temperatures and volcanic ash.

A combined visible and infrared “sandwich” view over Minnesota and Wisconsin early on May 11, 2022. Images every one minute. (Click to play)

Recent meso-scale coverage from the GOES-18 ABI include: Texas, New Mexico and Minnesota (mp4 and animated gif). A similar loop, but just showing the ABI “red” visible band.

1-min meso “sandwich” imagery over Texas on May 5, 2022 as seen by GOES-18 ABI. (click to play)

H/T

Thanks to the many (thousands) who made the GOES-18 ABI possible. These GOES-18 ABI are early images (preliminary and non-operational, calibration improvements are possible. Both McIDAS-X and geo2grid software was used in generating these images. More about GOES-16 and GOES-17.

Fall to Spring Equinox 2022

March 20th, 2022 |

By animating daily NOAA GOES-17 ABI Full Disk true color imagery, how the Earth is illuminated over time can be seen. For example, the minimum in incoming solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere associated with the Winter Solstice. For details, see “What is a Solstice?” by SciJinks. Or this NOAA https://www.noaa.gov/education/news/share-your-solstice-sunset-with-noaa-education post.

14 UTC loops from the fall Equinox of 2021 to the Spring Equinox of 2022. Also as an animated gif. These posted GOES ABI Full Disk imagery are only showing a small number of the pixels, for a fuller resolution image at one time (20-March-2022).

GOES-17 ABI true color images at 14 UTC each day from the 2021 Fall Equinox to the 2002 Spring Equinox.

The 16 bands of ABI from GOES-West and GOES-East from UW/CIMSS.

Interactive web page

The interactive web page that allows one to annotate images, such as drawing lines. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)
An annotated image, with text and a line. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)

An interactive web page with almost a years worth of GOES ABI Full Disk visible images at 11 UTC. The beginning date is the (northern hemisphere) summer solstice in 2021 and the end date is the winter solstice in 2021. A user can play the animation, as well as annotate the images. For example, draw lines along the terminator for different times of the year. One example might be to compare a solstice to an equinox. Can you estimate the day of the summery equinox? H/T Tom Whittaker, SSEC, for the webapp. Note that the app allows one to save an mp4 animation.

Screen shot of the webapp where one can explore the effect of the angle of incidence on sun’s energy. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)
Explore the changing seasons on Earth by relating the orbit, rotation and solar insolation with this webapp by T. Whittaker. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)

H/T

These images were made using NOAA data with geo2grid software, from UW-Madison, SSEC.

GOES-T now GOES-18

March 14th, 2022 |

On March 14, 2022 NOAA‘s GOES-T becoming GOES-18 (once the satellite obtained the geostationary orbit). Let’s celebrate both pi day and GOES-18 with a look back at the launch.

GOES-17 ABI

GOES-17 ABI provided 30-sec imagery, as shown in these blog posts by Scott Bachmeier and Bill Line. Of course GOES-17 ABI was continuing to provide Contiguous US and Full Disk scans.

The GOES-17 ABI Full Disk CIMSS true color composite image from March 1, 2022 with a 21:40 UTC start time.

The above image is *highly* sub-sampled, roam around this full resolution (very large) GOES-17 full disk image. In this full resolution image, can you zoom and roam to see the GOES-T rocket plume?

GOES-17 ABI 30-sec imagery of the GOES-T launch: visible bands, CIMSS true color and true color.

The above loop, as mp4 and animated gif.

GOES-16 ABI

A few animations from 30-sec GOES-16 ABI, including ABI band 2, CIMSS true color, true color and the day-time ‘rocket plume’ RGB.

30-sec GOES-16 ABI imagery, including ABI band 2 (high resolution visible), CIMSS true color, true color and the day-time ‘rocket plume’ RGB.

The mp4 is also posted (and animated gif). These loops were made with the UW-SSEC geo2grid software.

Figure from the GOES-R series Data Book on the concept of obtaining the geostationary orbit.