1984: Carolinas Tornado Outbreak

March 29th, 2021 |

NOAA’s GOES-5 VISSR view of a historical outbreak in the Carolina’s in 1984. March 28th and 29th, 1984 saw one of the most destructive tornado events in the history of North and South Carolina.

Infrared Loop:

GOES-5 Infrared imagery from 12:00 UTC to 23:30 UTC on March 28, 1984.

The coldest clouds appear as darker shades of red. A regional scale IR loop.

Visible Loop:

GOES-5 visible imagery from 12:00 UTC to 23:30 UTC on March 28, 1984.

A more zoomed-in visible loop over the same time range.

H/T Melissa Griffin for reminding us of this case:

More background on this case in 1984 was posted by the NWS Willmington office: https://www.weather.gov/ilm/CarolinasOutbreak.

A combined visible and infrared GOES-5 Full Disk image from March 28, 1984 at 21 UTC.

A larger Full Disk “sandwich” image.

NOAA GOES-5 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services.

Geostationary satellite views of the most rain over 72-hours in 2007

February 27th, 2021 |

The record for the most rain over a 72-hour period was in late February 2007, with 3.930m (154.72″)! This was on Reunion Island, associated with Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean. The island is east of Madagascar. This island also holds the record for the most rain (4,869 mm (191.7 in)) over a 96-hour period, associated with the same event. More on this case can be found in this 2009 BAMS article.

Meteosat-8

While the view of the cyclone from EUMETSAT‘s MET-8 was on the edge of the viewing area, the infrared window loop was still impressive.

A 3-day color-enhanced infrared window loop from EUMETSAT’s Meteosat-8 geostationary imager.

A longer loops of 3 and 4 days were also generated. Which shows Tropical Cyclone Favio as well. For these images, the coldest brightness temperatures have the green/yellow/red/pink colors. A one-day loop (February 25, 2007) in both mp4 and animated gif formats.

Meteosat-7

EUMETSAT’s Meteosat-7, due to its location over the Indian Ocean, had a more direct view of these cyclones.

A 3-day color-enhanced infrared window loop from EUMETSAT’s Meteosat-7 geostationary imager.

Note that the view angle is improved over Meteosat-8, but the image frequency is reduced. A longer Meteosat-7 loop was also generated. Again, Tropical Cyclone Favio can be seen.

A loop of Meteosat-7 visible band from February 25, 2007.

Visible loops (mp4 format) from February 23 and 24 and 26, 2007. The same loops as animated gifs: February 23, 24, 25 and 26, 2007.

H/T

Thanks to @Weather_History for the post on this event.

The above satellite data are from EUMETSAT, accessed via the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Data Services. The images were generated with McIDAS-X. More on EUMETSAT’s Meteosat Third Generation will appear in the Bulletin of the AMS.

There GOES 2020

January 4th, 2021 |

Daily Full Disk imagery

By animating daily NOAA GOES-16 or GOES-17 ABI Full Disk visible imagery, the year are 2020 can be shown quickly in review. The GOES-16 loops show an 18 UTC image each day of 2020, while GOES-17 shows an image from 21 UTC. The images are Rayleigh-corrected composites. The GOES-16 loop is similar to a loop that includes the Winter Solstice.

Click on the above image for a link to a page with one GOES-16 ABI image for each day of 2020: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/loops/18z_2020_GOES.html.

Other versions as an mp4, from the ABI on GOES-16: small, medium and large. Although it should be noted that all these images are drastically sub-sampled from the higher spatial resolution imagery.

A similar year-long animation, from GOES-17 at 21 UTC daily. This time was chosen for a maximum illumination of the full disk.

Click on the above image for a link to a page with one GOES-17 ABI image for each day of 2020.

Other mp4 versions, as mp4, from the ABI on GOES-17: small and medium.

Daily Regional Views

Year-long, GOES-16 loops at 18 UTC have been generated for other regions, including: the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, Texas and part of the Gulf of Mexico, Central US, Southwest, Northwest and the Midwest. Similar loops from GOES-17 have been generated using images from 21 UTC for both Alaska and Hawaii. These loops begin on January 1, 2020.

Hourly Views of the Midwest

A very large (~800 MB) file, showing a year-long (hourly) GOES-16 file over the Midwest (duration of 14 min) covering 2020. Many features can be seen, including clouds, smoke and snow. Note that this loop is sub-sampled in time by a factor of 12. RGB imagery of the CIMSS (Natural) true color (during the day) and the nighttime cloud microphysics (during the night) are shown.

These images were made with geo2grid s/w, with NOAA GOES data via the UW-Madison, SSEC.

(Northern Hemisphere) Winter solstice

December 21st, 2020 |

By animating daily NOAA GOES-16 ABI Full Disk visible imagery, how the Earth is illuminated over time can be seen. For example, the minimum in incoming solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere associated with the Winter Solstice. For details, see “What is a Solstice?” by SciJinks. Or this NOAA https://www.noaa.gov/education/news/share-your-solstice-sunset-with-noaa-education post.

A year-long GOES-16 visible Full Disk animation.

A Full Disk visible (band 2) loop at 11 UTC, (9 and 18 sec long versions).

Interactive web pages

A demonstration of the interactive web page that allows one to annotate images, such as drawing lines.

An interactive web page with a years worth of GOES ABI Full Disk visible images at 11 UTC. The beginning date is the (northern hemisphere) winter solstice is 2019 and the end date is the winter solstice in 2020. A user can play the animation, as well as annotate the images. For example, draw lines along the terminator for different times of the year. One example might be to compare a solstice to an equinox. H/T Tom Whittaker, SSEC, for the webapp.

 

Screenshot of a 4-panel webapp image where one can annotate the image with lines along the terminator.
Screen shot of the webapp where one can explore the effect of the angle of incidence on sun’s energy. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)
Explore the changing seasons on Earth by relating the orbit, rotation and solar insolation with this webapp by T. Whittaker. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)

The Year in Review

A year-long loop from GOES-16 showing the Midwest. Only 18 UTC images are shown.

A year-long Midwest CIMSS (Natural) true color (during the day) and the nighttime cloud microphysics) animation from GOES-16 at 18 UTC. Since this are daytime images, only the true color is being seen. A similar loop as above, but with a duration of 37 sec or 74 sec.

Year-long, GOES-16 loops at 18 UTC have been generated for other regions, including: the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, Texas and part of the Gulf of Mexico, Central US, Southwest, and Northwest. Similar loops from GOES-17 have been generated using images from 21 UTC for both Alaska and Hawaii. Note for the loop over parts of Alaska, the nighttime imagery is evident. These loops begin on the Winter Solstice 2019.

Year-long Hourly Loop over the Midwest

A very large (800 MB) file, showing a year-long (hourly) GOES-16 file over the Midwest (duration of 14 min). The loop is also on YouTube. Many features can be seen, including clouds, smoke and snow. This loop begin on the Winter Solstice 2019.

These images were made with either McIDAS-X or geo2grid, both from UW-Madison, SSEC.