A68a Update

December 3rd, 2020 |

A very large iceberg broke off the Larsen-C Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula in July 2017 (recall this CIMSS Satellite Blog post) or this more recent post. While NOAA’s GOES-16 ABI visible sensors may not be ideal, they can monitor the iceberg’s location if the cloud cover is not too thick, as shown in the “natural color” animation. A similar loop, in the animated gif format. These composite images include information from ABI “blue” and “red” visible bands, along with the near-infrared “vegetation” band. A sample still image from November 21, 2020. More information can be found in the quick guide.

A GOES-16 natural color animation, at 15:30 UTC each day. The first day is November 4 , while the last day is December 2, 2020.

Thanks to a recent tweet by Simon Proud, showing a GOES-16 animation of A68a:

The geo2grid software was used to generate these loops.

Imagery from the EWS-G1 — U.S. Space Force

November 18th, 2020 |

EWS-G1 (Electro-optical Infrared Weather System Geostationary) is a U.S. Space Force mission. Images are now available on the UW/SSEC geo-browser. Full Disk images are obtained every 30 minutes. An EWS-G1 “quick-guide (pdf)”.

The five spectral bands of the EWS-G1 Imager.

The above animation shows the 5 spectral bands on the EWS-G1 imager. There is one visible band and four infrared bands.

This multi-panel image shows all the 5 bands at one given time (and showing full disk images).

Animation of the visible (band 1) from EWS-G1.
Animation of the EWS-G1 water vapor band (3).
Animation of EWS-G1 band 4, longwave infrared window.

A loop of all five spectral bands.

A day-time visible band animation over Madagascar.
A composite image with EWS-G1, GOES-17 and GOES-16 data. Credit: UW/SSEC Satellite Data Services.

The EWS-G1 was formerly NOAA’s GOES-13. Contact the UW/SSEC Satellite Data Services for information of data access / subscription, if more than the posted near realtime imagery are needed.

Hurricane Gilbert: 1988 as seen by GOES-7

September 14th, 2020 |

Hurricane Gilbert (1988) is one of the most intense Atlantic-basin hurricane on record. NOAA’s GOES-7 offer both visible and infrared views of the storm. These images are from the VISSR mode. What is unique about the view from the geostationary orbit, is that it allows both large / synoptic scale views as well as finer (mesoscale) views. 

Visible band

Visible

GOES-7 Visible images from September 10-17, 1988. [click to play animation | MP4]

A week-long visible loop of the Hurricane Gilbert as it moves across the Caribbean and through the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical Storm Florence can also be seen near Louisiana, early in the animation. 

Gilbert. GOES-7 Visible

GOES-7 Visible images from September 12-15, 1988. [click to play animation | MP4]

A GOES-7 visible loop over the time period of maximum intensity. 

GOES-7

GOES-7 Visible images from September 13, 1988. [click to play animation | MP4]

The highest spatial resolution visible GOES-17 imagery of Hurricane Gilbert. Note the horizontal striping due to the photo-multipler tube technology that was then used. 

Infrared window band

IR

GOES-7 IR images from September 10-18, 1988. [click to play animation | MP4]

Above is a “large-scale” view of the GOES-7 infrared longwave window band covering September 10-18, 1988. Tropical Storm Florence can also be seen near Louisiana, early in the animation. 

A more “zoomed in” view:

IR

GOES-7 IR images from September 12-14, 1988. [click to play animation | MP4]

All the IR images have been color-enhanced to highlight the coldest temperatures. 

Visible and Infrared window bands

GOES-7 Full Disk

GOES-7 combined visible and infrared full disk image from September 13, 1988. [Click to enlarge.]

A much larger file (18 MB) of the same day/time as above. This is a combined image, with the visible band, along with the cold pixels from the infrared band (color). 

Swipe between GOES-7 Visible and Infrared bands.

Fade between GOES-7 Visible and Infrared bands. (Using this software.)

NOAA GOES-7 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services.

 

 

First Rapid Scan Satellite Imagery of Volcanic Ash Plumes: July 1980 (Mount St. Helens)

July 22nd, 2020 |

 

SMS-2

SMS-2 Visible and infrared (IR) from July 23, 1980. The red square represents the approximate location of Mount St. Helens.  [click to play animation | MP4]

The main modern Mount St. Helens eruption was May 18, 1980 — yet there were also later paroxysmal eruptions, such as on June 12/13, 1980. Geostationary satellite imagery from NASA’s SMS-2 (Synchronous Meteorological Satellite) monitored two more Mount St. Helens eruptions on July 22th (local time), 1980, as shown above. Note that in “UTC-time”, the eruption took place on July 23rd. A similar side-by-side SMS-2 visible and infrared animation.  This may be the first* “rapid scan” imaging of a volcanic ash plume (with a 3-minute cadence for almost an hour), where “rapid scan” is defined as satellite imagery less than 5 min apart.

There is a long history of rapid scan imaging from geostationary imagers, including from SMS-1/2, ATS-1, ATS-3, GOES-1, GOES-7 series, GOES-8 series, GOES-14 , Meteosat, etc and of course, AHI and the GOES-R series ABI where 1-min imagery is routine. Here’s a page where users can search historical meso-scale sector locations from the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services.  

The monitoring of volcanic ash plumes and their attributes have greatly increased from 1980 to today. Moving from qualitative (somewhat after the fact imagery) to quantitative applications (that are much more timely)! Due to the large number of volcanoes, coupled with the increase in satellite observations, satellite observations are key in monitoring the world’s volcanoes for aviation safety and other uses. More on volcanic ash monitoring.

SMS-2

A similar loop as above (SMS-2 Visible and IR from July 23, 1980), but the in mp4 format. Both the day before and after, SMS-02 was in a routine scan mode of imagery every 30 minutes. The rapid scan imagery was just on July 23, 1980 for approximately one hour, starting at 00:14 UTC. 

This webpage allows to customize the loop speed of the SMS visible and infrared side-by-side animation. This uses the hanis software. 

SMS-2 Visible from July 23, 1980

SMS-2 Visible from July 23, 1980 covering approximately one hour. The red square represents the approximate location of Mount St. Helens.  [click to play animation | MP4]

The shadows from the plume are evident. 

A longer duration (4-hr) SMS-02 IR animation (mp4) or (animated gif). The red square represents the approximate location of Mount St. Helens.  Note the less than ideal image navigation. 

GOES-3

NOAA’s GOES-3 was also operating, although not in a rapid scan mode, so imagery was every 30 minutes. 

GOES-3 IR July 1980.

GOES-3 IR July 23, 1980 over 4 hours. The red square represents the approximate location of Mount St. Helens.  [click to play animation | MP4]

The two pulses are clearly evident. 

H/T

Thanks to Jean Phillips, the SSEC Data Services, and the Scott’s (Bachmeier and Lindstrom). NASA SMS-2 and NOAA GOES-3 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. More GOES-R series information

* There may have been rapid scan satellite observations of volcanic ash plumes prior to this case in 1980, and if you know of any, please contact T. Schmit.