“Adrift” 1983 Hurricane (Raymond)

October 12th, 2021 |

GOES-6

GOES-6 was NOAA‘s operational satellite during the 1983 Hurricane Raymond, which was a Cat 4. This incredibly powerful storm was made famous in the 1998 book “Red Sky in Mourning: A True Story of Love, Loss, and Survival at Sea” written by Tami Oldham Ashcraft with Susea McGearhart, and also by the 2018 movie “Adrift”.

“[October 12, 1983]… About 1000 the seas arched into skyscrapers, looming over our boat. The anemometer– the wind speed gauge — now read a steady sixty knots [69 mph or 31 m/s] and we were forced to take down all sails and maintain our position under bare poles with the engine running … The wind sounded like jet engines being thrown in reverse. I looked at the anemometer and gasped when I read 140 knots [161 mph or 72 m/s] … I looked up at the ship’s clock: It was 1300 hours. My eyes dropped to the barometer: It was terrifyingly low — below twenty-eight-inch mark [948 hPa]. Dread engulfed me. I hugged the musty blanket to my chest as I was flung side to side in the hammock. No sooner had I closed my eyes when all motion stopped. Something felt very wrong, it became too quiet — this trough too deep. “OHMIGOD!” I heard Richard scream. My eyes popped open. WHOMP! I covered my head as I sailed into oblivion.”

From the book: Red Sky in Mourning: A True Story of Love, Loss, and Survival at Sea
GOES-6 IR loop from 13:15 UTC on October 11th, to 02:45 UTC on October 13th, 1983 in the eastern Pacific. The locations of the boat (Hazana) are approximate.

The above GOES-6 infrared satellite loop has been annotated with two approximate locations of the boat (Hazana), one of October 9th and the other on October 18th, 1983. While the location of the boat (in beige) on October 12th and it’s relationship to Hurricane Raymond is unknown, the boat must have received the brunt of the storm. A similar loop as above, but without the labels or grid lines. Or an image with only the grid lines and boat locations.

Multi-day, large-scale, visible loop of the daytime images from GOES-6 between October 8-13, 1983.

A similar visible loop, but animated twice as fast and as an animated gif. Note the development of the eye, along with the fast forward speed of the storm.

A higher resolution GOES-6 visible loop over the daytime hours of October 10th, 1983.

Similar GOES-6 visible loops (mp4) from October 11th and 12th, 1983 (and as animated gifs: October 11th and 12th).

A full spatial resolution GOES-6 visible loop over the daytime hours of October 10th, 1983.

Similar as above, full spatial resolution GOES-6 visible loops (mp4) views from October 11th and 12th, 1983 (and as animated gifs: October11th and 12th).

Multi-day infrared loop of the daytime images from GOES-6 between October 8-13, 1983.

Infrared (IR) imagery can monitor the storm throughout the day and night. Recall that a smaller hurricane eye can imply a more powerful storm.

…. “A tropical wave, later to become Hurricane Raymond, passed into the Pacific from Nicaragua on 5 October and moved westward at 8 m s-1. At this time, a deep-layer mean high center was over Mexico and a well developed ridge line extended westward toward the Hawaiian Islands. By 0600 GMT 8 October, infrared satellite imagery showed increasing cyclonic shear over the disturbance, and the first advisory on the cyclone was issued with the center near 12.4°N, 104.4°W. The depression moved due west at 2 m s-1, south of the mean ridge line, and over very warm 29-30°C water. Intensification to tropical storm occurred at 0000 GMT 9 October near 12.3°N, 106.4°W. Tropical Storm Raymond continued moving west, accelerated and intensified. By 1200 GMT 10 October, winds had reached 34 m s-1 and the storm was upgraded to a hurricane near· 12.0°N, 114.6°W. Raymond was now moving west at 8 m s-1 and a small but distinct eye had become visible near the center. Raymond then began to intensify rapidly (Fig. 22). Twenty-four hours later, the cyclone reached its maximum intensity of 64 m s-1 [143 mph] near 12.4°N, 121.2°W. Raymond then turned west-northwest, moving at 8 to 9 m s-1. With sea surface temperatures remaining above 27°C, Raymond moved across 140°W longitude with 57 m s-1 winds shortly after 0600 GMT on 14 October.

According to E. B. GUNTHER AND R. L. CROSS (1984) in the AMS MWR (Monthly Weather Review)

GOES-6 Full Disk image from October 10, 1983. This image combines visible imagery and cloud infrared temperatures.

A larger version of the above image. A similar image as above, but as seen by NOAA’s GOES-5, which was then the eastern GOES.

2020 – Hurricane Marie

Another long-lived eastern Pacific category 4 storm was Hurricane Marie in 2020 as detailed by NHC. Of course the more modern GOES-17 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) was able to acquire images more frequently and at a higher spatial resolution than was possible in 1983, as in shown in this CIMSS Satellite Blog post.

Animation of both visible and IR (cold pixels) bands of Hurricane Marie, 2020.

2021 – Hurricane Linda

GOES-15 band 3 (6.5 mircometer) band in August of 2021 over the Eastern Pacific.

A similar storm in August of 2021, as shown in a GOES-15 water vapor band loop over several days.

Credits

NOAA GOES-6 data (and other GOES) are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. These images were made using the McIDAS-X software, developed at the UW/SSEC. Thanks for all who have made the entire suite of GOES possible, as well as the experimental satellites that preceded the operational ones. Much progress has been made in the monitoring of tropical cyclones between GOES-5/6 and the current advanced imagers. More GOES-16 and -17 imagery and other information. Scott Bachmeier is thanked for his help with this post.

 

Meteorologists Monitor Meteor

September 29th, 2021 |

According to the JPL site, there was a bright meteor (or bolide) on September 29, 2021 over the Gulf of Alaska. (The JPL and a similar NASA site are posted under the GLM tab on this link of links.) This event was seen by both the ABI and GLM on NOAA‘s GOES-17, as well as the AHI on Japan’s Himawari-8. What may be unique about his event is that the imagers monitored the meteor soon after it’s explosion, and not just the resulting plume (as was done in this case over Russia in 2013). This is based on the length of the event, during which the various spectral bands displayed a signature and other information.

Peak Brightness DatePeak Brightness Time (UT)Latitude (deg.)Longitude (deg.)Altitude (km)Total Radiated Energy (J)Calculated Total Impact Energy (kt)
2021-09-29 10:50:5953.9N148.0W2813.7e100.4

Entry from table via the JPL site.

GOES-17

The GLM and ABI observed this event, but given it’s faster readout, the GLM offers much more information than the ABI. The apparent location of the meteor as seen by the ABI is different than the reported location, in part due to parallax. More on the concept of parallax is available here.

Animation of GOES-17 ABI band 12 (9.6 mirometer) mesoscale sector #2 on September 29, 2021.

Hotter brightness temperatures can be seen in the GOES-17 ABI band 12 at 10:50:59 UTC.

Animation of all 16 bands of the GOES-17 imager on September 29, 2021. Note band 12.

Indicative of a short duration event, coupled with how the ABI scans, the meteor signature was only clearly seen at one time in nearly every ABI spectral band (although possibly the ABI band 11 as well). Due to the layout of the focal plane array on the ABI, not all spectral bands observe the Earth at the precisely same time. [Figure a modification from the GOES-R Series Data Book.] A similar loop as above, but as an animated gif, is available here. In addition,. while a bit hard to see, the longwave split window infrared difference also showed a subtle signature of the meteor.

Spectral difference images (over time) can also be useful in the monitoring of meteors. An ABI 10.3 – 12.3 micrometer band difference is shown below. An shortwave minus longwave difference loop.

An animation of the GOES-17 difference image between ABI 10.3 – 12.3 micrometer bands. The brightness temperature range is -5 to +5K.

The GLM on GOES-17 also observed this event. A similar loop as below, but as an animated gif, is available.

ABI band 12 and the GLM Flash Event Group density on September 29, 2021. Credit: CIRA/RAMMB Slider.

The rapid movement of the meteor to the south is clearly evident. As well as the GLM group map and the key (blue is early times and red is later times).

GOES-17 GLM meteor location over time and space on September 29, 2021 with larger circles (color coded to intensity). Credit: Todd Beltracchi.

As well as the changes over time, most likely monitoring the meteor break-ups.

GOES-17 GLM meteor over time on September 29, 2021. Credit: Todd Beltracchi.

AHI

Both the ABI and Japan’s AHI scan space around the edge of the Earth. However, with the ABI data the process of making calibrated, navigated, and remapped radiance only pixels located on the Earth are included in the Level 1b radiance files. Hence, the ABI may scan meteors in space, but the data are not available to most users.

All 16 spectral bands from Himawari-8 AHI at the same nominal time (10:50 UTC) on September 29, 2021.

A similar loop as above, but as an animated gif, is available here (and an 8-panel AHI image at this same time is available here). This example helps to illustrate that each AHI detector doesn’t sense radiation from the same exact location at the same time.

H/T

NOAA GOES17 data were accessed via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. McIDAS-X and Geo2Grid was used to generate imagery. Thanks also to Todd Beltracchi and Scott Bachmeier, and to CIRA/RAMMB Slider images/movies.

GOES-17 sees Landsat 9 Rocket Plume

September 28th, 2021 |

The ABI on NOAA‘s GOES-17 (GOES-West) was able to see the Landsat 9 rocket plume from Vandenberg Space Force base. The plume was most evident on ABI bands 7 (3.9 µm) and 8 (6.2 µm), using the mesoscale sector (1) on September 27, 2021.

The 16 spectral bands from GOES-17 on September 27, 2021 off the coast of California. Note bands 7 and 8.

The same animation as above, but as an animated gif. The 18:15 UTC image. CONUS and Full Disk 16-panel ABI images are also posted, for both GOES-16 and GOES-17. Similar, 6-panel (ABI bands 1-6) in both mp4 and animated gif formats where the plume shadow is evident.

GOES-17 “rocket plume” RGB on September 27, 2021.

The same “rocket plume” RGB animation as above, but as an animated gif. The 18:15 UTC image. A similar loop from AWIPS via Bill Line. More on the ‘rocket plume’ RGB: quick guide and CIMSS Satellite Blog post.

The plume shadow was also seen by the ABI, as noted in this NASA Earth Observation post.

H/T

NOAA GOES17 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. McIDAS-X was used the generate the 16-panel imagery, while geo2grid was used to generate the ‘rocket plume’ RGB. Thanks also to Todd Beltracchi and Scott Bachmeier.

1985s Hurricane Gloria

September 27th, 2021 |

Late September of 1985, saw the landfalls of Hurricane Gloria. More information. These NOAA GOES-6 animations are in both the infrared (window) and visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared

A color-enhanced GOES-6 infrared loop from September 21-27, 1985.

A still infrared image is from September 25, 1985. Note that cold temperatures are colored yellow, red and black.

Visible

A GOES-6 visible loop from September 27, 1985.

A similar loop, as an animated gif. Also see this still image.

A combined visible and infrared GOES-6 Full Disk image from September 27, 1985 at 18 UTC.

A larger Full Disk “sandwich” image from the same time as above.

H/T

H/T Brian McNoldy for reminding us of “his storm”:

More on Hurricane Gloria via AMS publications.

NOAA GOES-6 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. McIDAS-X was used the generate the imagery. Of course the current generation of GOES imagers (ABI) provide much improved (spatial, spectral and temporal) imagery. Or see a CIMSS Satellite Blog post on Hurricane Sam.