Typhoon Tiffany makes landfall in Australia

January 9th, 2022 |

JMA Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

JMA Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) showed Tropical Cyclone Tiffany as it made landfall along the eastern coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia on 09 January 2022. [UPDATE: just prior to making landfall around 0130 UTC on 10 January, Tiffany intensified to a Category 1 typhoon (JTWC discussion)].

A longer animation of Himawari-8 Infrared (10.4 µm) images (below) revealed pulses of overshooting tops which exhibited cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures in the -90 to -95°C range.

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

A stepped sequence of zoomed-in Suomi-NPP VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) images at 1517 UTC, viewed using RealEarth (below) showed a few red pixels — which highlighted cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -100°C or colder.   

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) image at 1517 UTC [click to enlarge]

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed convection wrapping around a very small eye feature at 1905 UTC.

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Infrared images with contours of deep-layer wind shear (below) indicated that Tiffany was moving through an environment of light to moderate shear. 

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared images, with contours of deep-layer wind shear [click to enlarge]

Super Typhoon Rai

December 18th, 2021 |

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

For the second time during its life cycle, Typhoon Rai reached Category 5 intensity (ADT | SATCON) east of Vietnam during the 18-19 December 2021 period. JMA Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -90C and colder at times around the eye.

 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP as viewed using RealEarth (below) provided a more detailed view of Rai around the time that it reached Category 5 intensity.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP [click to enlarge]

3 days earlier, Rai first reached reached Category 5 intensity at 0000 UTC on 16 December, shortly before making landfall in the Philippines; 2.5-minute Himawari-8 Infrared images (below) revealed a small-diameter “pinhole” eye. As Rai moved across the Philippines, it was responsible for hundreds of fatalities in addition to widespread flooding and power outages.

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

Cyclonic Storm Jawad and Typhoon Nyatoh in GK2A imagery

December 3rd, 2021 |
GK2A Low-level water vapor (Band 10, 7.3 µm), hourly from 0740 to 1640 UTC on 3 December 2021 (Click to enlarge)

South Korea’s GK2A satellite (carrying the AMI instrument that is very similar to both AHI on Himawari-8 and ABI on GOES-16/GOES-17) is overhead on the Equator at 128 E Longitude, and satellite imagery (link) and products (link) are available online. The low-level Water Vapor animation (GK2A Band 10, 7.3 µm), above, hourly from 0740 to 1640 UTC on 3 December 2021, shows the evolution of Nyotah from a symmetric to asymmetric storm in the central Pacific. The 1500 UTC Advisory from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center shows a storm south and east of Japan that is forecast to weaken significantly in the next two days. The animation also shows Jawad in the Bay of Bengal in a moist corridor between very dry low-level air over southeast Asia and western India/the Arabian Sea. The 1500 UTC advisory for Jawad suggests modest strengthening in the next day then landfall near the border of India and Bangladesh.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water fields for the 24 hours ending 1600 UTC on 3 December 2021, below, show drying around Nyotah, and the deep (but somewhat isolated) moisture surrounding Jawad.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water fields, 1700 UTC 2 December – 1600 UTC 3 December 2021 (Click to enlarge)

One of the products available at the GK2A product site is Rain Rate, and a toggle of that product at 1540 UTC (overlain on top of clean window infrared imagery) and low-level water vapor imagery is shown below. Heaviest instantaneous rains are diagnosed in the ITCZ Monsoon trough centered near Indonesia.


Thanks to KMA for making these awesome products and channels available!

Typhoon Nyatoh in the Philippine Sea

December 1st, 2021 |

NOAA-20 True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images viewed using RealEarth (above) showed a large convective burst south of the center of Tropical Storm Nahtoh — located in the Philippine Sea — at 0356 UTC on 01 December 2021. A robust overshooting top near the center of the convective burst exhibited a cluster of cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -100ºC and colder (red pixels embedded within purple-to-yellow-to-black enhancement).

2.5-minute rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (below) displayed the evolution of Nyatoh as it transitioned from a Tropical Storm to a Category 1 Typhoon at 1200 UTC. The coldest cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of convective overshooting tops were in the -90 to -98ºC range, but did not quite reach the -100ºC threshold that was seen in the VIIRS imagery.

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

Himawari-8 Infrared images with contours of 18 UTC deep-layer wind shear from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed that Nyatoh was moving through an environment of low to moderate shear.

Himawari-8 Infrared images, with contours of 18 UTC deep-layer wind shear [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Infrared – Water Vapor Difference images (below) indicated that much of the deep convection associated with Typhoon Nyatoh was likely penetrating the local tropopause. This product is discussed here.

Himawari-8 Infrared – Water Vapor Difference images [click to enlarge]

DMSP SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) images at 1905 UTC and 2148 UTC are shown below. A completely closed eyewall had not yet formed at those times.

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1905 UTC [click to enlarge]

 

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 2148 UTC [click to enlarge]

===== 02 December Update =====

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

Typhoon Nyatoh rapidly intensified to a Category 3 storm by 1200 UTC, and then Category 4 by 1800 on 02 December (ADT | SATCON) — 2.5-minute rapid scan Himawari-8 Infrared images (above) showed the storm during this intensification period. During the 1200-1800 UTC time frame, subtle waves could be seen propagating south-southwestward across the cold central dense overcast, away from the center of Nyatoh. Energy from those waves was apparently propagating vertically, such that mesospheric airglow waves (reference) were evident in a Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image around 1650 UTC (below). Other examples of mesospheric airglow waves — caused by tropical cyclones, deep convection or jet streams — are available here .

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image at 1650 UTC [click to enlarge]