Super Typhoon Yutu re-intensifies to Category 5

October 26th, 2018 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

After making landfall in the Northern Mariana Islands on 24 October, Super Typhoon Yutu underwent eyewall replacement cycles that brought about a drop to Category 4 intensity on 25 October. However, during the day on 26 October 2018 the storm again re-intensified to Category 5 (ADT | SATCON). Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed a fascinating variety of storm-top features: (1) outward-propagating gravity waves, (2) a quasi-stationary (in a storm-relative sense, with respect to the moving storm center) curved “notch”  — resembling a hydraulic jump — within the eastern semicircle, and (3) periodic bursts of warm/cold couplets (black/violet enhancement)  — resembling “hot tower” impulses — located well northeast of the storm center (forming around 19-20º N/137º  W) that propagated quickly northwestward. In addition, cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -90ºC and colder (yellow pixels embedded within darker purple shades) were seen southern eyewall during the 18-19 UTC period (1834 UTC image).

A comparison of Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window images during the few hours after sunrise (below) showed an eye that was partially cloud-filled with low-level mesovortices.

Himawari-8 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, left) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.4 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

An animation of Himawari-8 Visible images from 2302 UTC on 26 October to 0632 UTC on 27 October (below) provides a more detailed view of the mesovortices and some of the storm-top gravity waves. As was seen on Infrared imagery, a train of quasi-stationary concentric waves formed along the “notch” feature, becoming especially pronounced around 0532 UTC.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A comparison of DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed Yutu around 2130 UTC.

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Super Typhoon Yutu makes landfall on Tinian and Saipan

October 24th, 2018 |

Himawari-8 “Clean Window” Infrared (10.41 µm) Imagery, 0900-1540 UTC on 24 October 2018 (Click to animate)

Himawari-8 Clean Window Infrared (10.41 µm) imagery shows Super Typhoon Yutu poised to hit Tinian and Saipan in the Marianas Islands, to the northeast of Guam. The 0900 UTC Advisory from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center shows a storm with sustained winds of 145 knots, with strengthening forecast. JMA estimates a surface pressure of 905 hPa! (Link)

(Himawari data courtesy JMA and the NWS Pacific Region)

Update: Landfall on Tinian and Saipan occurred just before 1500 UTC; a closer view using 2.5 minute rapid scan Himawari-8 imagery can be seen here (station plot PGSN is Saipan, where reliable observations ceased after 1452 UTC).

Added: From William Straka, CIMSS. NOAA-20 had a fortuitous overpass, almost directly over Tinian at landfall. The Day Night Band Visible (0.7 µm) Imagery (with a full moon) and 11.45 µm infrared imagery is shown below).

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day Night Band visible (0.7 µm) imagery and I05 infrared (11.45 µm) imagery, 1551 UTC on 24 October 2018 (Click to enlarge)

CIMSS helps manage a Direct Broadcast (DB) antenna at the National Weather Service on Guam, and that antenna received both NOAA-20 and GCOM data as the eye was over, or close to, Tinian.  Microwave imagery from The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR-2) on JAXA’s GCOM satellite, below, (courtesy Kathy Strabala, CIMSS) at 36.5 GHz and 89.0 GHz, reveals cloud and rainband structures that infrared imagery cannot.  In particular, the 89.0 GHz imagery suggests the formation of an outer eyewall ouside the very compact inner eye.  This typically is the start of an eyewall replacement cycle.

GCOM AMSR-2 imagery at 36.5 and 89.0 GHz, 1601 UTC on 24 October 2018 (Click to enlarge)

The DB antenna also processed data from NOAA-20, the same overpass as shown above, zoomed in over Tinian. The antenna is able to capture data over much of the western Pacific Basin, as the Day Night Band visible image shows below. A true color image from the previous overpass on Guam, 12 hours earlier, during daytime (0311 UTC on 24 October), is here.

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day Night Band visible (0.7 µm) imagery, 1544 UTC on 24 October 2018 (Click to enlarge)

West Pacific Typhoon Yutu

October 23rd, 2018 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Rapid-scan (2.5-minute interval) Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed the formation of a well-defined eye as Typhoon Yutu rapidly intensified from a Category 2 to a Category 4 storm  (ADT | SATCON) east of Guam on 23 October 2018. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -90ºC or colder (yellow pixels embedded within violet-enhanced areas) — which was several degrees colder than the -84ºC tropopause temperature on rawinsonde data at Guam (below).

Plot of Guam rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

Plot of Guam rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

During this period of rapid intensification, Yutu was moving over very warm water and through an environment of low (favorable) deep-layer wind shear — and satellite-derived winds from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed the development of well-defined mid/upper-level outflow channels to the northwest and southeast of the storm, which also aided the intensification process.

Himawari-8 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with mid/upper-level satellite-derived winds [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with mid/upper-level satellite-derived winds [click to enlarge]

Hurricane Walaka

October 1st, 2018 |

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 (GOES-West) Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (above) showed the formation of a well-defined eye of Hurricane Walaka during a period of rapid intensification (ADT | SATCON) from 0000-2330 UTC on 01 October 2018; Walaka was classified a Category 5 hurricane as of the 02 October 00 UTC advisory. Walaka was moving over very warm water with Sea Surface Temperatures of 30ºC.

A 1536 UTC DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) revealed a small eye (reported to be 20 nautical miles in diameter at 21 UTC).

DMSP-16 SSMIS (85 GHz) Microwave image [click to enlarge]

DMSP-16 SSMIS (85 GHz) Microwave image [click to enlarge]

A side-by-side comparison of JMA Himawari-8 and GOES-15 Infrared Window images (below) showed Walaka from 2 different satellite perspectives — the superior spatial resolution of Himawari-8 (2 km, vs 4 km for GOES-15) was offset by the much larger viewing angle. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -80ºC and colder (shades of violet) from both satellites early in the animation, but warmed somewhat into the -70 to -75ºC range by 00 UTC on 02 October.

Infrared Window images from Himawari-8 (10.3 µm, left) and GOES-15 (10.7 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

Infrared Window images from Himawari-8 (10.3 µm, left) and GOES-15 (10.7 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

===== 02 October Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Walaka remained classified as a Category 5 hurricane until the 15 UTC advisory on 02 October, when it was assigned Category 4 status after some weakening as a result of an overnight eyewall replacement cycle. A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed the storm at 1240 UTC or 2:40 am local time.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below) showed the northward motion of Waleka. Given that the storm was forecast to pass very close to Johnston Atoll, the US Coast Guard was dispatched to evacuate personnel on Johnston Island.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images; the white circle shows the location of Johnston Atoll [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images; the white circle shows the location of Johnston Atoll [click to play animation | MP4]

The MIMIC-TC product (below) showed the eyewall replacement cycle during the 0000-1445 UTC period.

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave product [click to play animation]

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave product [click to play animation]

Around 1830 UTC, a toggle between GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images (below) showed a small eye, with evidence of a larger outer eyewall suggesting that another eyewall replacement cycle was taking place.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images [click to enlarge]