Annular solar eclipse shadow

December 26th, 2019 |

Full Disk Himawari-8 True Color images [click to play animation | MP4]

Full Disk Himawari-8 True Color RGB images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS/CIMSS) [click to play animation | MP4]

Full Disk JMA Himawari-8 True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images (above) showed the shadow of an annular solar eclipse as it moved from west to east across the Indian Ocean, Indonesia and West Pacific Ocean on 26 December 2019.

A closer view using images centered over Indonesia is shown below. The small eye of Category 1 Typhoon Phanfone could be seen in the northern portion of the satellite scene. Bright areas of sun glint (south of the eclipse shadow) highlighted regions having light winds — and therefore a relatively flat water surface which behaved like a mirror to reflect a larger amount of sunlight back toward the satellite.

Himawari-8 True Color images centered over Indonesia [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 True Color RGB images centered over Indonesia [click to play animation | MP4]

The solar eclipse shadow was also seen on Visible (0.73 µm) images from the CMA FY-2G satellite (below), which is positioned father west over the Equator at 105ºE longitude.

CMA FY-2G Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

FY-2G Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Eruption of the Whakaari volcano on White Island, New Zealand

December 9th, 2019 |

“Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from Himawari-8 (left) and GOES-17 (right) [click to play animation | MP4]

A brief eruption of the Whakaari volcano on White Island, New Zealand occurred around 0110 UTC on 09 December 2019 — “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from JMA Himawari-8 and GOES-17 (GOES-West) showed the small volcanic cloud as it fanned out east of the island (above).

A signature of the volcanic cloud was also seen in VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP, as viewed using RealEarth (below). The cloud exhibited a rather warm infrared brightness temperature, since the Wellington VAAC only estimated the maximum height to be

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]

The volcanic plume contained elevated levels of SO2 which drifted south-southeastward, as seen in a McIDAS-V image of Sentinel-5 TROPOMI Vertical Column SO2 at 0206 UTC (below).

Sentinel-5 TROPOMI Vertical Column SO2 (credit: Bob Carp, SSEC) [click to enlarge]

Sentinel-5 TROPOMI Vertical Column SO2 (credit: Bob Carp, SSEC) [click to enlarge]

Typhoon Kammuri makes landfall in the Philippines

December 2nd, 2019 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images (above) showed Typhoon Kammuri as it made landfall in the Philippines around 1500 UTC on 02 December 2019. Kammuri rapidly intensified from a Category 2 to a Category 4 storm (ADT | SATCON) shortly before landfall — it had been moving over very warm water (Sea Surface Temperature | Ocean Heat Content) in the Philippine Sea.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC viewed using RealEarth (below) depicted Kammuri 2-3 hours after landfall.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) imagery at 1725 UTC (below) revealed a large eye and nearly circular eyewall.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

Typhoon Kammuri in the West Pacific Ocean, with record cold cloud-top temperatures

November 30th, 2019 |

Himawari-8 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed a large canopy of cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) associated with Category 1 Typhoon Kammuri in the West Pacific Ocean on 30 November 2019. Between 00 UTC and 05 UTC, many of the pulsing overshooting tops exhibited BTs -100ºC or colder (shades of red embedded in black on the coldest end of the scale).

Plots of the coldest overshooting top 10.4 µm brightness temperatures on Himawari-8 Target Sector (2.5-minute interval) and Full Disk (10-minute interval) images during the 0002-0502 UTC time period on 30 November (below) showed that the closest (in time**) Full Disk image BTs were often within a degree C of the Target Sector images — but the magnitude of rapid fluctuations of BT seen in the 2.5-minute data were well not captured by the 10-minute data. For the 4 Target Sector images exhibiting BTs of -103ºC and colder (0112, 0127, 0204 and 0259 UTC) only one of the closely-corresponding Full Disk images exhibited a similarly cold BT (0110 UTC, with -103.0ºC). The coldest Target Sector BT was -103.55ºC at 02:59:44 UTC, while the coldest Full Disk BT was -103.0ºC at 01:13:34 UTC.

**The actual time that closely-corresponding Target Sector and Full Disk scans were imaging Kammuri differed by about 1 minute and 15 seconds — for example, the 01:12:15 UTC Target Sector scanned Kammuri’s coldest overshooting tops at 01:12:19, while the 01:10:00 Full Disk scanned those same overshooting tops at 01:13:34 UTC.

Plots of coldest Himawari-8 10.4 µm brightness temperatures on 2.5-minute Target Sector (blue) and 10-minute Full Disk (green) images [click to enlarge]

Plots of coldest Himawari-8 infrared (10.4 µm) brightness temperatures on 2.5-minute Target Sector (blue) and 10-minute Full Disk (green) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0421 UTC as viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed an area of very cold cloud-top infrared BTs (highlighted by the yellow region near the center of the storm). The coldest BT within that yellow area was -109.35ºC — which would qualify as the coldest cloud-top temperature on record as sensed by a meteorological satellite (Weather Underground). In addition, on the plot of Himawari-8 infrared BTs shown above it can be seen that the previous record for coldest documented BT (-102.2ºC with Tropical Cyclone Hilda in 1990) was eclipsed on 9 Target Sector and 4 Full Disk images.

 NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0420 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0421 UTC [click to enlarge]

The NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared image at 0421 UTC is shown below with 2 different color enhancements — the darker blue colors of the 160-to-200 K enhancement help to highlight the colder BT regions (including the coldest 163.8 K or -109.35ºC pixel).

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm), with different color enhancements (credit: William Straka) [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) image at 0421 UTC, with 2 different color enhancements (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

The Himawari-8 Infrared image closest (time-wise) to the NOAA-20 image was at 04:22:15 UTC, and its coldest cloud-top BT was -102.5ºC. In a toggle between magnified Himawari-8 Visible and Infrared images at that time (below), the -102.5ºC BT was located within the northernmost cluster of red pixels (where shadowing and texture in the Visible image highlighted the overshooting top).

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (10.4 µm) images at 0422 UTC [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (10.4 µm) images at 0422 UTC [click to enlarge]

The nearest upper air site was Babelthuop Airport/Koror on Palau Island, located south of the storm — the coldest temperature in their 00 UTC rawinsonde data (below) was -81.9ºC at an altitude of 16.7 km. Assuming that the overshooting top cooled at a lapse rate of around 7.5ºC per km of ascent beyond the -81.9ºC tropopause (reference), the altitude of the coldest -109.35ºC cloud top was likely near 19.5 km.

Plots of 00 UTC and 12 UTC rawinsonde data from Koror, Palau Island [click to enlarge]

Plots of 00 UTC and 12 UTC rawinsonde data from Koror, Palau Island [click to enlarge]

During the daylight hours on 30 November, Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) revealed widespread cloud-top gravity waves which were moving outward away from intense convection with overshooting tops near the storm center. Many of these gravity waves were propagating along the tops of tendrils of transverse banding — especially within the southern semicircle of Kammuri.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

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Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1604 UTC [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1604 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP at 1604 UTC (above) and NOAA-20 at 1654 UTC (below) showed mesospheric airglow waves propagating southward in the DNB images.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1654 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1654 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

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6.9 µm) images, with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images, with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear (above) indicated that Kammuri was moving through an environment of low to moderate shear. Himawari-8 Water Vapor images with plots of satellite-derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors (below) showed a well-defined outflow channel north of the tropical cyclone.

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with Derived Motion Winds [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images, with plots of Derived Motion Winds [click to enlarge]


Himawari-8 (courtesy JMA) and GEO-KOMPSAT-2A or GK2A (courtesy KMA) visible imagery were combined to create stereoscopic imagery of the storm on 30 November, as shown below from 2100 UTC on 29 November to 0820 UTC on 30 December.  View the 3-dimensional image by crossing your eyes and focusing on the third image that becomes apparent in between the two images shown.

Visible (0.64 µm) Imagery from Himawari-8 (left) and GK2A (right) from 2100 UTC on 29 November to 0820 UTC on 30 November 2019 (Click to animate)

10-minute Full Disk images of GK2A Cloud Top Temperature and Cloud Top Height products (source) are shown below. A large canopy of CTT values as cold as -80ºC and CTH values up to 15 km were seen associated with Typhoon Kammuri during the period 0000-0500 UTC.

KMA GK2A Cloud Top Temperature product [click to play animation | MP4]

KMA GK2A Cloud Top Temperature product [click to play animation | MP4]

KMA GK2A Cloud Top Height product [click to play animation | MP4]

KMA GK2A Cloud Top Height product [click to play animation | MP4]