Cyclone Debbie makes landfall in Queensland, Australia

March 28th, 2017 |

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation]

Cyclone Debbie formed in the Coral Sea on 22 March 2017, and eventually intensified to a Category 3 storm (ADT | SATCON) as it moved southward toward Australia. Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed the eye of Debbie as it was making landfall in Queensland, near Prosperpine (YBPN).

Landsat-8 false-color, with Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 false-color, with Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

The Landsat-8 satellite made an overpass of the eye at 2358 UTC (above), as a large convective burst had developed within the northern semicircle of the eyewall (which was also evident in the corresponding Himawari-8 Visible and Infrared Window images viewed using RealEarth).

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) and GMI Microwave (85 GHZ) Images around 1430 UTC on 27 March [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) and GMI Microwave (85 GHZ) Images around 1430 UTC on 27 March [click to enlarge]

Debbie was undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle as the storm center approached the coast — this was evident in Microwave (85 GHz) images from GMI at 1425 (above) and SSMIS at 2017 UTC (below) from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site.

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) and DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) images around 2017 UTC on 27 March [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) and DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) images around 2017 UTC on 27 March [click to enlarge]

The MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below; also available as an MP4 animation) showed copious tropical moisture associated with Cyclone Debbie, which led to rainfall accumulations as high as 780 mm (30.7 inches) — with rainfall rates up to 200 mm (7.9 inches) per hour — and record flooding along the coast from Brisbane to Lismore.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

 

 

 

Eruption of Kambalny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia

March 25th, 2017 |

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [Click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [Click to play animation]

The Kambalny volcano in far southern Kamchatka, Russia erupted around 2120 UTC on 24 March 2017. A Himawari-8 “Target Sector” was positioned over that region — providing rapid-scan (2.5-minute interval) imagery — as seen in a 2-panel comparison of AHI Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) data covering the first 7 hours of the eruption (above). Ash plume infrared brightness temperatures quickly became -40ºC and colder (bright green enhancement).

Himarari-8 false-color RGB images [click to play animation]

Himarari-8 false-color RGB images [Click to play animation]

Himawari-8 false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from the NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site (above) showed the ash plume drifting south-southwestward during the subsequent nighttime hours. It is interesting to note the formation and subsequent northwestward motion of numerous contrails (darker green linear features) across the region, due to the close proximity of a major Tokyo flight corridor.

True-color RGB images from Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS, viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed the long ash plume during the late morning and early afternoon on 25 March. The dark signature of ash fall onto the snow-covered terrain was evident on the Terra and Aqua images, just west of the high-altitude ash plume.

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images [Click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images [Click to enlarge]

26 March Update: a closer view of Terra MODIS true-color images from 25 and 26 March (below) showed that the perimeter of the darker gray surface ash fall signature had fanned out in both the west and east directions.

Terra MODIS truecolor RGB images from 25 and 26 March, with arrows indicating the perimeter of surface ash fall signatures on each day [Click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS truecolor RGB images from 25 and 26 March, with arrows indicating the perimeter of surface ash fall signatures on each day [Click to enlarge]

Sir Ivan Fire pyroCumulonimbus in New South Wales, Australia

February 12th, 2017 |

Himawari-8 0.64 µm Visible (top), 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared (middle) and 10.4 µm Longwave Infrared Window (bottom) images [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 0.64 µm Visible (top), 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared (middle) and 10.4 µm Longwave Infrared Window (bottom) images [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and Longwave Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above / MP4 ; zoomed-in over fire source region: GIF / MP4) showed wildfires burning in New South Wales, Australia on 12 February 2017. The larger Sir Ivan Fire near Dunedoo produced a pyroCumulonimbus (pyroCb) cloud, which first cooled below the -40ºC Longwave Infrared brightness temperature “pyroCb threshold” at 0530 UTC (-47ºC) and quickly reached its minimum temperature of -56.6ºC at 0540 UTC. An animation of Himawari-8 true-color images is available here (courtesey of Dan Lindsey, RAMMB/CIRA).

Consecutive true-color images from Suomi NPP VIIRS (0402 UTC) and Aqua MODIS (0405 UTC) viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the large smoke plume about 1.5 hours prior to pyroCb development.

Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color images [click to enlarge]

A high fire danger was well-anticipated across this portion of Australia:

Some ground-based photos of the pyroCb cloud:


Turbulence over the central Pacific Ocean

December 27th, 2016 |
Himawari-8 Water Vapor Imagery (6.2 µm, top; 6.9 µm, middle; 7.3 µm, bottom), 1700-1900 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor Imagery (6.2 µm, top; 6.9 µm, middle; 7.3 µm, bottom), 1700-1900 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to enlarge]

Turbulence over the Pacific Ocean affected at least one flight on Tuesday 27 December 2016 near 24º N, 162º E, as indicated by a pilot report issued at 1745 UTC:

PGUA UUA /OV 24N 162E/TM 1745/FL340/TP B777/TB MOD-SEV/RM ZOA

In the animation above of the three Himawari-8 Water Vapor bands (sensing radiation emitted at 6.2 µm, 6.9 µm and 7.3 µm), a characteristic banded gravity wave structure is evident which is associated with the pilot report of moderate to severe turbulence (Note: the ABI instrument on the GOES-R series of satellites will feature these same 3 upper level, mid-level and lower level water vapor bands). In contrast to a turbulence event earlier this month, documented here on this blog, the wave features responsible for this turbulence were more distinct in 8-bit McIDAS-X imagery, and were also apparent in all three water vapor bands.

The Himawari-8 satellite data were used in the subsequent issuance of a SIGMET (Significant Meteorological Information) advisory:

WSPA06 PHFO 271824
SIGPAS

KZAK SIGMET SIERRA 1 VALID 271825/272225 PHFO-
OAKLAND OCEANIC FIR MOD OCNL SEV TURB FCST BTN FL280 AND FL360.
WI N2640 E16810 – N2120 E16810 – N2120 E16240 – N2640 E16250
– N2640 E16810. MOV E 25KT. BASED ON ACFT AND SAT.

The full 11-bit McIDAS-V imagery from the 6.2 µm Water Vapor band on Himawari-8, below, shows multiple ephemeral signatures of potential turbulence. In contrast to the event on 14 December, the gravity waves in this event perturbed clouds enough that they were also apparent in the Infrared Window band, as shown in this toggle between the 10.4 µm and 6.2 µm images. Himawari-8 Infrared Window brightness temperatures exhibited by the gravity wave were in the -30º to -40ºC range at 1740 UTC, which roughly corresponded to altitudes of 30,000-34,000 feet according to data from the 12 UTC rawinsonde report from Minamitorishima RJAM (IR image | text) located about 890 km or 550 miles to the west of the wave feature. Additional Himawari-8 Water Vapor images created using AWIPS II are here for the 6.2 µm imagery (from 1720-1740 UTC); this is a toggle between 6.2 µm and 7.3 µm imagery at 1720 UTC.

Himawari-8 Infrared Imagery (6.2 µm), 1600-1900 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to animate]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) Imagery, 1600-1900 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to animate]

The superior spatial resolution of Himawari-8 (2-km at the sub-satellite point) was vital in detecting the gravity wave features causing the turbulence. Water Vapor imagery from COMS-1, with a nominal resolution of 4 km, does not show the features associated with the turbulence report.

COMS-1 Infrared Imagery (6.75 µm), 1630-1800 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to animate]

COMS-1 Water Vapor (6.75 µm) Imagery, 1630-1800 UTC on 27 December 2016 [click to animate]

Similarly, HimawariCast data that is broadcast at reduced resolution was insufficient to monitor this event. See the toggle below from 1740 UTC.

Himawari-8 Infrared Imagery (6.2 µm) at 1740 UTC on 27 December 2016, native resolution and as distributed via Himawaricast [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) Imagery at 1740 UTC on 27 December 2016, at native resolution and as distributed via Himawaricast [click to enlarge]