Changes to the GOES-16 CONUS sector

December 18th, 2017 |

GOES-R CONUS domains for Operational GOES-West Location (137º W Longitude, Green), Check-out Location (89.5º W Longitude, Red) and Operational GOES-East Location (75.2º W Longitude, Blue) (Click to enlarge)

When GOES-16 shifted from its checkout position at 89.5º W Longitude to its position at 75.2º W Longitude (where it will be operational as GOES-East), the domain for the Continental US (CONUS) domain shifted slightly. In ‘Flex Mode‘ (also known as ‘Mode 3‘) of GOES-16 Scanning (and also in the proposed Mode 6), routine CONUS scans occur every 5 minutes. The image above, courtesy Mat Gunshor of CIMSS, shows the GOES-West CONUS scan in green, the GOES-R CONUS scan from the Check-out Location at 89.5º W Longitude in Red, and the GOES-16 CONUS scan domain in blue.

The center point of the CONUS domain, as documented in Table 5.1.2.7-5 from the GOES-R Product Definition and User’s Guide (PUG), shows a shift from 29.24º North Latitude, 91.41º West Longitude (at the check-out location) to 30.08º North Latitude, 87.1º West Longitude (at the operational GOES-East location).  As a result, the entire island of Puerto Rico is now in the CONUS sector, and the northern boundary has shifted farther north into central and western Canada, by about 100 miles.

GOES-16 CONUS Imagery from the Test Location (Left) and GOES-16 CONUS Imagery from the Operational GOES-East Location (right) as displayed in 2 different AWIPS

GOES-16 is no longer transmitting ABI data

November 30th, 2017 |

16-panel image of all GOES-16 ABI Bands, 1332 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

In preparation for its move from 89.5º W Longitude to the operational GOES-East position at 75.2º W Longitude, GOES-16 Instruments — the ABI, the GLM, and others — have been placed in ‘safe mode.’  In that mode, the instruments do not scan or transmit data.  This occurred shortly after the 1330 UTC Full Disk image, and the 1332 CONUS Image, shown above.  GOES-16 instrumentation will start scanning and transmitting again, sometime between 14 and 20 December.  In contrast to earlier GOES Satellites, GOES-R series satellites will not transmit data when they are shifting longitude.

Other examples of the final preliminary, non-operational GOES-16 ABI images are shown below: (1) Visible (0.64 µm) imagery centered over snow-covered Mount Washington, New Hampshire, (2) Full Disk Water Vapor (6.9 µm) imagery and (3) a closer view of Water Vapor (7.3 µm, 6.9 µm and 6.2 µm) images showing mountain waves over Wyoming and Colorado.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, centered on Mount Washington, New Hampshire (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, centered on Mount Washington, New Hampshire [click to animate]

GOES-16 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images [click to animate]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to animate]

Deadly Smog in India and Pakistan

November 9th, 2017 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day Night Band Visible Imagery (0.70 µm) at Night, 05, 07 and 08 November 2017 (Click to enlarge).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible Imagery at Night (the Day Night Band Visible Image (0.7 µm) from 5 November, 7 November and 8 November), above, and Infrared Channel Brightness Temperature Difference  (11.45 µm – 3.9 µm) on 5 November, 7 November and 8 November), below, both show the presence of fog/smog over northern Pakistan and northwestern India from 05-08 November 2017 (Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS). The Smog led the Government of Punjab to ban burning of stubble; schools in Delhi were closed.  Vehicle crashes linked to reduced visibilities have killed at least 10 people (source).  Air Quality in the region is very poor as shown in this Screen Grab from this site.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared channel Brightness Temperature Difference (11.45 µm – 3.9 µm) on 05, 07, and 08 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

An animation of Meteosat-8 Visible Imagery, below, from 03-09 November, shows little improvement in conditions in the past week.

Meteosat-8 Visible Imagery (0.6 µm) at 0300 UTC from 03 to 09 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Daily composites of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from RealEarth, below, showed the areal coverage of the smog during the 03-09 November period. Surface observations at New Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport indicated that the visibility remained below one statute mile — with zero visibility at times — during the 72-hour period spanning 07 November, 08 November and 09 November (animation).

Daily composites of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color RGB images (click to enlarge)

Daily composites of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color RGB images (click to enlarge)

Worth noting on a nighttime comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Brightness Difference (11.45-3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images, below, was the appearance of a cloud shadow being cast by moonlight onto the top of the boundary layer smog/fog.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Brightness Difference (11.45-3.74 µm) and Dat/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Brightness Difference (11.45-3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

An RGB computed using the GOES-16 Cirrus Channel

November 3rd, 2017 |

Cloud Type RGB at 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

Red-Green-Blue (RGB) Composite Images are a handy way of showing information from multiple satellite bands (or band differences) at once. The image above shows an RGB created by NOAA Scientist Andy Heidinger that uses the GOES-16 Visible Band (0.64 µm) as the green component, Snow-Ice Band (1.61 µm) as the blue component and Cirrus Band (1.38 µm) as the red component to tease out information about Cloud Type.  The Cirrus Channel (unique to GOES-16 as far as Geostationary Satellites are concerned) is a handy channel to use in an RGB because it discriminates very well between high clouds and low clouds.  In a moist environment, low clouds are not apparent at all in the Cirrus Band.  The toggle below shows the Visible, Snow/Ice and Cirrus Channels at 1502 UTC.  Low clouds over Kansas have no signal in the Cirrus channel — there are other differences as well, of course.

In the RGB, Thin cirrus clouds (for example, the contrails over Illinois) are red, opaque ice clouds (over the western Atlantic) are yellow (having a contribution from both Red and Green Components), Low Clouds (over the southern Plains) are Cyan (having a contribution from Blue and Green), snow is Green, and lofted water clouds are white (having a contribution from all three). As the atmosphere dries, the amount of lofting necessary for the Cirrus channel to view a cloud composed of water droplets (and therefore white in the RGB) decreases.

GOES-16 Imagery at 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017: Snow/Ice (1.61 µm), Visible (0.64 µm) and Cirrus Channels (1.38 µm) (Click to enlarge)

The Day Land Cloud RGB (sometimes called ‘Natural Color’) can also be used to estimate cloud type. The toggle below shows how the Cloud Type RGB has more gradations between ice cloud type because of the use of the Cirrus Channel.  The Cloud Type RGB also highlights the contrails and thin cirrus more effectively, again because of the use of the Cirrus Channel

Cloud Type RGB (1.38 µm, 0.64 µm, 1.61 µm) and Day/Land/Cloud RGB (1.61 µm, 0.86 µm, 0.64 µm), 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

 

Three toggles below show the Snow/Ice and Visible and Cirrus channels zoomed in over Illinois (where contrails are present), over the western Atlantic (where strong convection is occurring) and over the southwestern United States.

GOES-16 Imagery at 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017: Cirrus Channel (1.38 µm), Visible (0.64 µm) and Snow/Ice (1.61 µm) (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Imagery at 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017: Cirrus Channel (1.38 µm), Visible (0.64 µm) and Snow/Ice (1.61 µm) (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Imagery at 1502 UTC on 3 November 2017: Cirrus Channel (1.38 µm), Visible (0.64 µm) and Snow/Ice (1.61 µm) (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 also has a Baseline Product that shows Cloud Type. That is shown below. The 1502 UTC Image was incomplete, so the 1507 UTC image is shown.

GOES-16 Cloud Phase, Baseline Product, 1507 UTC on 3 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)