Convection and Flooding over northern Wisconsin

June 17th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI Clean Window (10.3 µm) Infrared Imagery, 0200-0559 UTC on 17 June 2018 (Click to animate)

Persistent convection over northern Wisconsin, Minnesota and upper Michigan late Saturday (16 June)/early Sunday (17 June) caused significant flooding.  The animation above shows GOES-16 ABI “Clean Window” Infrared Imagery from 0200-0600 UTC on 17 June.  Note the persistence of the cold overshooting tops over western Bayfield County in northwestern Wisconsin! A longer Infrared animation (0110-1200 UTC) which includes hourly plots of precipitation type (yellow) and SPC storm reports of damaging winds (cyan) is available here.

This link from Wisconsin Emergency Management shows aerial pictures of the flood damage. Of note is the break in US Highway 2 to the west of Ashland WI.

The heavy rains also affected runoff into Lake Superior. MODIS imagery, below, from the MODIS Today site (also available from RealEarth: Link), shows considerable offshore flow of sediment on 19 June (a similar image from 18 June is here, with a toggle between the 2 days here).

True-Color Imagery from Aqua MODIS on 19 June 2018 (Click to enlarge)

Transverse banding around a decaying MCS

June 14th, 2018 |

Aqua MODIS Visible (0.65 µm), Near-Infrared

Aqua MODIS Visible (0.65 µm), Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm), Water Vapor (6.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images, with pilot reports of turbulence plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

A comparison of Aqua MODIS Visible (0.65 µm), Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm), Water Vapor (6.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images (above) showed widespread transverse banding along the northern and eastern periphery of a decaying Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that was moving from Iowa into Illinois and Missouri on 14 June 2018.

GOES-16 (GOES-East) Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm), Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images with pilot reports of turbulence are shown below.

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm) images, with hourly plots of turbulence [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of turbulence [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of turbulence [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of turbulence [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of turbulence [click to play MP4 animation]

 

Tornado in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

June 14th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI Band 2 (Red Visible, 0.64 µm) over northeastern Pennsylvania. Luzerne County is outlined in Yellow, and Wilkes-Barre’s location is highlighted as a yellow box (Click to animate)

A confirmed tornado struck Wilkes-Barre in Luzerne County in northeastern Pennsylvania shortly after sunset on 13 June 2018 (at about 0215 UTC). Visible imagery, above, shows the line of thunderstorms approaching the region before sunset. This video, from Citizens Voice Reporter Nico Rossi, shows some of the damage.

NOAA/CIMSS ProbTor captured the tornadic cell very well (Click this link for a discussion that includes infrared satellite animations). Click here for real-time access to ProbTor.

1-minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 Band 13 (Clean Infrared Window, 10.3 µm) images with plots of SPC storm reports are shown below. The Wilkes-Barre PA tornado is plotted as a red T on the 0200 UTC image.

GOES-16 Band 13 (Clean Infrared Window, 10.3 µm) images, with SPC storm reports plotted in red [click to animate]

GOES-16 Band 13 (Clean Infrared Window, 10.3 µm) images, with SPC storm reports plotted in red [click to animate]

Below is a 1-km resolution Terra MODIS Band 31 (Infrared Window, 11.0 µm) image from shortly after the Luzerne County tornado, showing the line of convection that had developed in advance of a cold front. The 2 overlapping SPC storm reports (listed as damaging winds, with report times of 2008 and 2015 UTC) for the Wilkes-Barre event are in the center of the image. The minimum cloud-top infrared brightness temperature was -66ºC.

Terra MODIS Band 31 (Infrared Window, 11.0 µm) image, with plots of cumulative SPC storm reports and the 03 UTC position of the surface cold front [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Band 31 (Infrared Window, 11.0 µm) image, with plots of cumulative SPC storm reports and the 03 UTC position of the surface cold front [click to enlarge]

Mesoscale Convective System in the Plains

June 11th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with plots of SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

A Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) developed over eastern Nebraska early in the evening on 11 June 2018, then propagated southward across the Plains during the subsequent overnight hours. GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images with plots of SPC storm reports are shown above; a Mesoscale Sector was positioned over the region, providing images at 1-minute intervals.

A closer look over Kansas using Infrared imagery from polar-orbiting satellites (below) revealed some very cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures, which included -87ºC on MODIS, -90ºC on VIIRS and -92ºC on AVHRR.

POES AVHRR, Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared images, with plots of SPC storm reports [click to enlarge]

Metop-B AVHRR, Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared images, with plots of SPC storm reports [click to enlarge]

The coldest air temperature on 00 UTC rawinsonde data from Dodge City and Topeka, Kansas (below) was -69.5ºC (at altitudes of 14.6 km/49,900 feet at Dodge City, and 17.6 km/57,700 feet at Topeka) — so in theory air parcels and cloud material within a vigorous overshooting top could have ascended a few km (or thousands of feet) beyond those altitudes to exhibit an infrared brightness temperature of -92ºC.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Dodge City and Topeka, Kansas [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Dodge City and Topeka, Kansas [click to enlarge]

A toggle between re-mapped versions of the GOES-16 ABI and Metop-B AVHRR Infrared imagery over Kansas at the time of the very cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperature (below) revealed 2 important points: (1) with improved spatial resolution (1 km for AVHRR, vs 2 km *at satellite sub-point* for ABI) the instrument detectors sensed much colder temperatures (-92.6ºC with AVHRR vs -81.2ºC with ABI), and (2) due to parallax. the GOES-16 image features are displaced to the northwest. In addition to the isolated cold overshooting top in south-central Kansas, note the pronounced “Enhanced-V” storm top signature in far northeastern Kansas.

Comparison of GOES-16 ABI and Metop-B AVHRR Infrared images [click to enlarge]

Comparison of GOES-16 ABI and Metop-B AVHRR Infrared images [click to enlarge]

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