Eddy in Lake Michigan

April 8th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly surface and ship reports plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly surface and ship reports plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) revealed the presence of an eddy in the high-turbidity nearshore waters of southern Lake Michigan on 08 April 2017. The animation was created using 5-minute “CONUS” Sector images; an animation using 1-minute Mesoscale Sector images is available here.

A sequence of Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images viewed using RealEarth (below) showed that the eddy began to develop on 07 April.

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images from 07 and 08 April [click to enlarge]

Terra and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images from 07 and 08 April [click to enlarge]

Lake effect cloud plume formation over the Great Salt Lake

April 4th, 2017 |

Visible images from GOES-15 (0.63 µm, left), GOES-16 (0.64 µm, center) and GOES-13 (0.63 µm, right), with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

Visible images from GOES-15 (0.63 µm, left), GOES-16 (0.64 µm, center) and GOES-13 (0.63 µm, right), with hourly surface reports plotted in yellow [click to play animation]

** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

As discussed in more detail on the VISIT Meteorological Interpretation Blog, a small lake effect cloud plume formed over the southern portion  of the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah on 04 February 2017. A comparison of early morning Visible images from the GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-16 and GOES-13 (GOES-East) satellites (above; also available as an MP4 animation) showed the advantage of improved spatial and temporal resolution provided by the GOES-16 0.64 µm “Red visible” band for depicting the evolution of this feature (which was responsible for some brief inland snow showers). The images are displayed in the native projection of each satellite.

Several hours prior to the formation of the lake effect cloud band, the MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product (below) indicated that mid-lake water temperatures were as warm as 48ºF.

MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

Eruption of Kambalny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia

March 25th, 2017 |

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [Click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [Click to play animation]

The Kambalny volcano in far southern Kamchatka, Russia erupted around 2120 UTC on 24 March 2017. A Himawari-8 “Target Sector” was positioned over that region — providing rapid-scan (2.5-minute interval) imagery — as seen in a 2-panel comparison of AHI Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) data covering the first 7 hours of the eruption (above). Ash plume infrared brightness temperatures quickly became -40ºC and colder (bright green enhancement).

Himarari-8 false-color RGB images [click to play animation]

Himarari-8 false-color RGB images [Click to play animation]

Himawari-8 false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from the NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site (above) showed the ash plume drifting south-southwestward during the subsequent nighttime hours. It is interesting to note the formation and subsequent northwestward motion of numerous contrails (darker green linear features) across the region, due to the close proximity of a major Tokyo flight corridor.

True-color RGB images from Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS, viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed the long ash plume during the late morning and early afternoon on 25 March. The dark signature of ash fall onto the snow-covered terrain was evident on the Terra and Aqua images, just west of the high-altitude ash plume.

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images [Click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images [Click to enlarge]

26 March Update: a closer view of Terra MODIS true-color images from 25 and 26 March (below) showed that the perimeter of the darker gray surface ash fall signature had fanned out in both the west and east directions.

Terra MODIS truecolor RGB images from 25 and 26 March, with arrows indicating the perimeter of surface ash fall signatures on each day [Click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS truecolor RGB images from 25 and 26 March, with arrows indicating the perimeter of surface ash fall signatures on each day [Click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Visible and Cirrus Channels

March 21st, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, 1202-1732 UTC on 21 March [click to play animated gif]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, 1202-1732 UTC on 21 March [click to play animated gif]

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data that are undergoing testing.

GOES-16 Visible imagery captured the erosion of near-surface clouds over Ohio on 21 March 2017. A benefit of the routine 5-minute imagery is that it allows better estimates of exactly when the low clouds will clear out. There is ample suggestion in the animation above of the presence of cirrus clouds. The GOES-16 ABI has a channel at 1.38 µm that is specifically designed to detect cirrus clouds because that is a region in the electromagnetic spectrum where strong water vapor absorption occurs. The animation of ‘cirrus channel’ imagery, below, confirms the presence of widespread cirrus clouds.

GOES-16 Cirrus Channel (1.38 µm) images, 1202-1732 UTC on 21 March [click to play animated gif]

GOES-16 Cirrus Channel (1.38 µm) images, 1202-1732 UTC on 21 March [click to play animated gif]

The MODIS instrument also has a similar near-infrared Cirrus spectral band — and a comparison of Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Cirrus (1.375 µm) images at 1601 UTC is shown below.

Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Cirrus (1.375 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Cirrus (1.375 µm) images [click to enlarge]