The corresponding GOES-13 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) images (below) perhaps highlighted the transverse banding features a bit better at times, since the weighting function for that spectral band generally peaks in the middle to upper troposphere where the transverse banding cloud features existed.A sequence of Infrared Window images from POES AVHRR (10.8 µm) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (below) showed a higher-resolution view of the initial formation of transverse banding during the 0411 to 1008 UTC time period. Shown below are two other types of satellite imagery that can be helpful for identifying the areal extent of transverse banding cloud features: the Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), and the MODIS Cirrus band (1.37 µm). A similar Cirrus band will be part of the ABI instrument on GOES-R.
A sequence of Infrared images from Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (below) showed greater detail in the storm-top temperature structure at various times during the event.
===== 19 July Update =====A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from before the event (09 July) and after the event (12 through 19 July) (above) revealed the large amounts of sediment flowing offshore into the southwestern portion of Lake Superior.
Another comparison of before (09 July) and after (13 through 19 July) true-color RGB images from Terra and Aqua MODIS is shown below.A toggle between a Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) image and the corresponding MODIS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product on 16 July (below) showed that the SST values in the sediment-rich nearshore waters were significantly warmer (middle 60s F, red enhancement) than those found closer to the center of Lake Superior (middle 40s F, cyan enhancement).
A sequence of 1-km resolution Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm), 1-km resolution POES AVHRR (12.0 µm) and 375-meter resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) Infrared images (below) showed better details of such features as overshooting tops, some of which exhibited IR brightness temperature values as cold as -78º C on MODIS, -81º C on AVHRR and -86º C on VIIRS.A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images at 0852 UTC or 3:52 am local time (below) showed the MCS as its core was centered over northern Illinois. Note how the tall, dense cloud mass blocked the view of nearly all city lights over a large area — including the normally very large and very bright lights of the Chicago metroplex. With almost no illumination from the Moon (which was in its Waxing Crescent phase, at 1% of Full), only the faint light of airglow helped to illuminate some cloud features over the northern portion of the satellite scene. In addition, numerous bright white streaks were seen in the Day/Night Band image along the leading (southern) edge of the MCS, due to cloud illumination from intense lightning activity; one lone lightning streak was evident in Wisconsin, whose intensity was bright enough to saturate the Day/Night Band detectors (hence the long “post-saturation recovery” streak as the sensor continued scanning toward the southeast). A few hours earlier at 0339 UTC, the CLAVR-x POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (below) showed areas with height values of 16-17 km (lighter cyan color enhancement) — the large amount of water and ice particles contained within such tall clouds was therefore able to effectively block the view of city lights on the VIIRS Day/Night Band image. Note that a Cloud Top Height product will be available from the ABI instrument on GOES-R.
Inspired by this as seen on Twitter:
Not a hurricane…sea ice caught in an eddy off of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Via a pilot friend of mine. pic.twitter.com/bpAxLqMPSN
— Kyle Roberts (@KyleWeather) July 3, 2016
we decided to take a look at some satellite imagery. GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) captured the fluid motion of ice floes off the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland on 02 July 2016.A comparison of Terra MODIS true-color and false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images viewed using RealEarth (below) aided in the discrimination of cloud vs ice/snow — in the false-color images, snow/ice appeared as shades of cyan, in contrast to supercooled water droplet clouds which appeared as shades of white. An alternative RGB image for use in the discrimination of cloud vs snow/ice is shown below; in this particular false-color RGB image, snow/ice features appear as shades of red. Surface observations at the time of the Terra MODIS image are plotted in yellow. 2 days later, 04 July maps from the Canadian Ice Service (below) indicated that much of these larger ice floes consisted of thick first-year ice with concentrations in the range of 4-6/10ths to 8-10/10ths; the existence of such ice concentration at this particular location was 4-6/10ths to 9-10/10ths above normal.