Cyclone Roanu, and a new all-time high temperature record set in India

May 21st, 2016

INSAT-3D Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images, with hourly surface weather symbols [click to play MP4 animation]

INSAT-3D Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images, with hourly surface weather symbols [click to play MP4 animation]

Cyclone Roanu (01B) was the first tropical cyclone of the 2016 North Indian Ocean season, with a northeastward track just off the east coast of India during the 18-21 May period. The storm moved over very warm waters, with sea surface temperature values of 30-31º C, but moderate amounts of deep-layer wind shear prevented the storm from rapidly intensifying (ADT | SATCON). INSAT-3D Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (above; also available as a large 79 Mbyte animated GIF) showed that the storm exhibited a number of convective bursts with a large areal coverage of cloud-top IR brightness temperatures colder than -90ºC. Cyclone Roanu brought very heavy rainfall to Sri Lanka, coastal India, and Bangladesh.

As Roanu was moving along the east coast, very hot surface air temperatures were seen in the western portion of India on 19 May, with many sites reporting temperatures in excess of 110ºF. The animation below shows hourly Infrared images with surface METAR reports, as viewed using RealEarth.

Hourly Infrared satellite images, with METAR surface reports [click to play animation]

Hourly Infrared satellite images, with METAR surface reports [click to play animation]

INSAT-3D Visible (0.65 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs (knots) and temperatures (ºF) [click to play animation]

INSAT-3D Visible (0.65 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs (knots) and temperatures (ºF) [click to play animation]

INSAT 3D Visible (0.65 µm) images with hourly surface temperatures in ºF (above) revealed temperatures as warm as 122ºF at Ahmadabad, at 10 UTC and 12 UTC; a plot of the time series of weather condition at Ahmadabad is shown below. Farther to the north at the city of Phalodi (whose location is denoted by the gray * symbol) a temperature of 123.8ºF or 51.0ºC was recorded, which set an all-time record for the highest temperature officially measured in India (the previous record was 50.6ºC, set in 1886 at Pachpadra)..

Time series plot of surface data for Ahmadabad, India [click to enlarge]

Time series plot of surface data for Ahmadabad, India [click to enlarge]

Daily record maximum precipitable water at Miami, Florida

May 17th, 2016

H/T to Brian McNoldy for sending this out on Twitter:

Hourly images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product (below) revealed the northward transport of deep tropical moisture from the Caribbean during the 16 May17 May 2016 period, with TPW values near Miami (KMFL) around 55 mm or 2.17 inches at 12 UTC on 17 May.

MIMIC Total Precpitable Water product [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precpitable Water product [click to play animation]

A comparison of the 00 UTC and 12 UTC Miami soundings (below) showed the increase of moisture within the middle to upper troposphere that helped contribute to the daily record maximum TPW value of 2.18 inches at 12 UTC.

00 UTC and 12 UTC Miami rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

00 UTC and 12 UTC Miami rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

The northward surge of tropical moisture also helped to fuel the development of a large mesoscale convective system over the eastern Gulf of Mexico, as seen in 4-km resolution GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm)  imagery (below). Cloud-top IR brightness temperatures were as cold as -80º C (violet color enhancement) at times with this storm.

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation]

A comparison of 1-km resolution Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images at 1632 UTC is shown below.

Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 SRSO-R: severe thunderstorms in parts of the Midwest and the Southern Plains

May 11th, 2016

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play animation]

The GOES-14 satellite remained in Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSO-R) mode for part of the day on 11 May 2016; Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (above) showed the nocturnal development of a severe thunderstorm ahead of an approaching occluded front (surface analyses) that dropped large amounts of hail in the northwestern section of Omaha, Nebraska (station identifier KOMA), stripping trees of foliage and clogging some city streets (even requiring the use of snow plows and shovels: photo 1 | photo 2). The storm began to exhibit an “enhanced-V” signature just prior to the time that it started producing large hail in Omaha. Note: the plotted location of the SPC storm reports on this animation (and all animations on this blog post) have been parallax-corrected, moving them slightly north-northeastward to match the location of cloud top features having a mean altitude of 10 km. The letters UNK after a W wind report denotes “unknown intensity”.

During the late afternoon and early evening, GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below; also available as a large 59 Mbyte animated GIF) revealed additional thunderstorms which produced hail and damaging winds across eastern Missouri and southern Illinois (SPC storm reports). These storms fired along an outflow boundary left in the wake of another mesoscale convective system (MCS)  that moved through the region earlier in the day.

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

Side note: there was a planned outage of GOES-14 SRSO-R imagery from 1059-2119 UTC. During this time, the GOES-13 (GOES-East) satellite had been placed into Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) mode, providing images as frequently as every 5-7 minutes. Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed the mesoscale convective system that produced hail as large as 4.0 inches in diameter in the St. Louis, Missouri area.

GOES-13 visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play animation]

GOES-13 visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play animation]

Finally, late in the day another MCS developed in North Texas, just west of the Dallas/Fort Worth area. GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports (below; also available as a large 54 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the large hail and damaging winds produced by this storm. One feature of interest was the “storm-top plume” that emanated from the largest cluster of overshooting tops, and was blown northeastward.

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 SRSO-R: severe thunderstorms in Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma

May 9th, 2016

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 um) images, with SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

Widespread severe thunderstorms (SPC storm reports) developed across Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma in the warm sector of a surface low centered over western Kansas (surface analyses) on 09 May 2016. The GOES-14 satellite was operating in Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSO-R) mode, providing images at 1-minute intervals; Visible (0.63 µm) images with overlays of SPC storm reports covering Nebraska/Kansas (above; also available as a large 133 Mbyte animated GIF) and Kansas/Oklahoma (below; also available as a large 130 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the development of the convection during the 1845 UTC to 0115 UTC (3:45 pm to 8:15 pm local time) period. The first EF4-rated tornado of the 2016 season (which was responsible for 1 fatality) occurred near Katie, Oklahoma; hail was as large as 4.25 inches in diameter Nebraska and 4.0 inches in Oklahoma.

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 um) images, with SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]