Tropical Storm Michael

October 7th, 2018 |

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed deep convection associated with Tropical Depression 14 east of Belize and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico early in the day on 07 October 2018. There was a large area of cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures in the -80ºC to -89ºC range (shades of purple), with isolated small pockets of -90ºC or colder (yellow enhancement).

1-minute GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from the UW-AOS site (below) showed numerous convective overshooting tops.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

At 1655 UTC the system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Michael — 1-minute GOES-16 Infrared images (below) showed that deep convection persisted in the eastern semicircle of Michael during the remainder of the day.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A hint of the elongated low-level circulation could be seen just west of the deep convection on late-day GOES-16 Visible images (below).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 08 October Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images at 0721 UTC (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) indicated that a well-defined convective band was wrapping around the eastern, northern and northwestern portions of the storm center (with some bright lightning streaks showing up on the DNB image in the southeastern segment of this convective band).

In a comparison of DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images at or shortly after 1115 UTC (below), the Microwave imagery showed a very large eye beneath the convective clusters.

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to enlarge]

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Michael was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane at 15 UTC; 1-minute GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) revealed abundant deep convection around the core of the storm during the 3 hours leading up to that time.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Michael had been moving over very warm water since forming on 06 October; analyses of Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature (below) showed that while the hurricane was forecast to briefly pass over a region of lower OHC in the far southeastern Gulf of Mexico, the remainder of its journey across the Gulf would be over water possessing modest amounts of OHC and warm SST values of 29-30ºC.

Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature analyses, with past and forecast tracks of Michael [click to enlarge]

Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature analyses, with past and forecast tracks of Michael [click to enlarge]

Similarly, a relatively cloud-free Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product from 0343 UTC on 06 October (below) showed SST values of 84-85ºF (darker red colors) along much of the forecast path of Hurricane Michael (issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October).

Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product (0343 UTC on 06 October) with Hurricane Michael forecast positions issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product (0343 UTC on 06 October) with forecast positions of Hurricane Michael issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October [click to enlarge]

Hurricane Michael

September 6th, 2012 |
GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images

Hurricane Michael became the first Category 3 hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic Basin season on 06 September. GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (above) and GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images (below) from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site showed that Michael displayed a well-defined eye.

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images

A comparison of 375-meter resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel and 11.45 µm IR channel images (below) offered a more detailed view of the eye structure at 15:42 UTC.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel and 11.45 µm IR channel images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel and 11.45 µm IR channel images

 

SpaceX launch of the Sentinel-6 satellite

November 21st, 2020 |

1-minute images from all 16 ABI spectral bands of GOES-17 [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute images from all 16 ABI spectral bands of GOES-17 [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector images from all 16 ABI spectral bands of GOES-17 (GOES-West) showed signatures of the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket (carrying the Sentinel-6A Michael Freilich satellite) from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California on 21 November 2020. During the first few minutes post-launch, arcing rapidly northeastward then eastward was the thermal signature of air that was superheated by the rocket exhaust, evident in all of the Near-Infrared bands (3-6) and most of the Infrared bands (7-15) — in addition to a separate signature of the low/mid-altitude booster rocket condensation cloud that was seen in all of the Infrared bands (drifting more slowly eastward, away from the launch site).

A 16-panel display of all GOES-17 ABI spectral bands during the first 11 minutes after launch is shown below.

16-panel display of all GOES-17 ABI spectral bands, 1716-1728 UTC [click to play animation | MP4]

16-panel display of all GOES-17 ABI spectral bands, 1716-1728 UTC [click to play animation | MP4]

Cardboard Container Factory Fire in Niagara Falls, NY

November 20th, 2020 |

GOES-16 Mesoscale Sector-1 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) Imagery, 1440 – 1450 UTC on 20 November 2020 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Mesoscale Sector 1 imagery, in its default position over the metropolitan New York City aviation hub, also views western New York. It was therefore able to view the beginning of a large fire at a cardboard container recycling and manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls (Youtube link) on 20 November 2020. GOES-16 Band 7 shortwave infrared (3.9 µm) imagery, above, first detected the fire hot spot at about 1441 UTC, or 9:41 AM EST (It becomes visually apparent in the imagery at about 1447 UTC). GOES-16 continued to observe the fire until clouds moved into the area around 1600 UTC, or 11 AM EST, as shown in the Fire RGB animation, below, from 1430 – 1630 UTC, and in this visible imagery animation. (Click here to view the Band 7 (3.9 µm) animation from 1430 – 1630)

The warmest GOES-16 Band 7 (3.9 µm) pixel temperature occurred at 1512 UTC: 53.5ºC. Click here to see the image; (here’s the Fire RGB for that time).

GOES-16 Fire RGB, 1430 – 1630 UTC on 20 November 2020 (Click to animate)

Radar observed the fire’s plume (link from 1550 UTC, courtesy Michael Fries, NWS BUF). Thanks also to Michael for alerting us to this event.