Medicane Ionas after Greece

September 21st, 2020 |

VIIRS Daily True-Color images, 18-21 September 2020 (Click to animate)

What did the Medicane that hit Greece do afterwards?  VIIRS True-color imagery, above, taken from the NASA WorldView site, show an intact feature moving along the northern coast of Africa on 20-21 September towards the Nile Delta.  The amount of cloudiness is in general declining as it moves into a drier environment.  Total Precipitable Water (TPW) from the MIMIC website shows the general drying surrounding the storm.

MIMIC hourly estimates of Total Precipitable Water from 00 UTC on 17 September to 14 UTC on 21 September 2020 (Click to animate)


Rick Kohrs, SSEC/CIMSS, supplied the True-Color multi-day animation from Meteosat-11 imagery below. (Updated on 23 September to include date annotations)

Meteorsat-11 True-Color Imagery over the Mediterranean sea, 15-21 September 2020 (Click to animate)

Hurricane Sally in the northern Gulf of Mexico

September 14th, 2020 |

Sally was upgraded to a Hurricane at 1600 UTC on 14 September. (Link)

MIMIC total precipitable water, 12 UTC 13 September – 11 UTC 14 September 2020 (Click to enlarge)

Hurricane warning have been issued along the central Gulf Coast on 14 September as strengthening tropical storm Sally approached.  MIMIC estimates of total precipitable water, above, for the 24 hours ending at 11 UTC on 14 September show the moist airmass in the Gulf that is helping to sustain the storm.  (Also apparent in the imagery:  Hurricane Paulette, moving over the island of Bermuda, and Pacific Tropical Storm Karina.  (For more information on these storms (and other storms during this active Atlantic Hurricane Season), and for the latest on Sally, refer to the National Hurricane Center)

Both Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 overflew Sally between 0700 and 0800 UTC on 14 September, and Day Night Band imagery for the storm (source) is shown below. The 50-minute time step between the two images show little because of a lack of lunar illumination, but westward expansion of the cloud shield near the Mississippi River delta is apparent. This suggests adequate upper-level divergence for continued storm intensification.

Suomi NPP (0707 UTC ) and NOAA-20 (0757 UTC) Day Night Band imagery on 14 September 2020 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 animations of infrared imagery for the 12 hours endings near 1300 UTC on 14 September, below, also show an expansion in the size of the coldest cloud tops in the storm’s center. A frontal zone is also apparent in the infrared imagery, stretching from New York/Pennsylvania southwestward to north Texas. This front will limit how far north the effects of Sally — post landfall — can move. (The forecast as of 14 September moves the post-landing remnants of Sally through Georgia).

GOES-16 Clean Window Infrared (10.3 µm) Imagery over Sally, 0116 – 1316 UTC 14 September 2020 (Click to animate)

Low-level Water vapor infrared imagery (GOES-16 Band 10, at 7.3 µm; click here for the Upper-level Water vapor infrared imagery, at 6.2 µm), below, using an enhancement courtesy William Churchill, WFO Key West (Click here for the Band 10 animation with a more familiar, perhaps, ‘dry yellow’ enhancement), also shows the expansion of the clouds in the central core of the storm. An apparent outflow channel from the storm south over Cuba also shows up in the animation.

GOES-16 Low-Level water vapor Infrared (7.3 µm) Imagery over Sally, 0926 – 1331 UTC 14 September 2020 (Click to animate)

A GOES-16 mesoscale sector is viewing the development of Sally, allowing for 1-minute imagery.  Visible imagery below, for two hours shortly after sunrise, shows active convection ongoing in the center of the storm and an obvious expansion of the central dense overcast. Both things support strengthening is the inner core structure.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, every minute, from 1233 to 1432 UTC on 14 September 2020 (Click to animate)

===== 21 UTC Update =====

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (with and without an overlay of GLM Flash Extent Density) [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (with and without an overlay of GLM Flash Extent Density) [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images — with and without an overlay of GLM Flash Extent Density (above) showed Hurricane Sally after it was upgraded to a Category 2 storm at 21 UTC. A series of convective bursts could be seen developing near the center of Sally; as is usually the case, very little GLM-detected lightning activity was associated with these types of convective bursts located within close proximity to the eye. Winds at Viocsa Knoll — an elevated oil platform, located just northwest of the storm center — gusted to 94 knots or 108 mph at 2100 UTC (shortly after gusting to 102 knots or 117 mph at 2020 UTC).

You can find more information on Sally at the SSEC Tropical Website (Link). For official forecasts, refer to the pages of the National Hurricane Center. Interests along the central Gulf Coast should be preparing for the arrival of this storm, in addition to monitoring its progress.

1985 (May 31st) Tornado Outbreak as seen from GOES-6

May 26th, 2020 |

The visible and infrared bands from GOES-6 observed the historic (31 May 1985) tornado outbreak over Pennsylvania and other parts of the Northeast. For the IR band, the coldest cloud-top temperatures are highlighted with colors. Here’s is a visible animation a bit more zoomed in.

A GOES-6 visible loop, starting at 11:00 UTC on May 31, 1985 (and ends at 01:00 UTC on June 1, 1985):

A similar  GOES-6 visible loop, but a bit more zoomed in. Loop starting at 11:00 UTC on May 31, 1985 (and ends at 01:00 UTC on June 1, 1985):

A GOES-6 infrared loop, starting at 11:00 UTC on May 31, 1985 (and ends at 00:30 UTC on June 1, 1985):

 

Fade between a GOES-6 Visible and Infrared band:

https://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/satellite-blog/images/2020/05/goes6_PA_1985_fader.html

Swipe” between a GOES-6 Visible and Infrared band:

https://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/satellite-blog/images/2020/05/goes6_PA_1985_swiper.html

 

NOAA GOES-6 data are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services.

More on this case, from Wikipedia and NOAA’s NWS.

Blowing dust across the Canary Islands and Atlantic Ocean

February 23rd, 2020 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) showed the onset of a 2-day event of dense plumes of blowing sand/dust (known locally as a Calima) — with Western Sahara and Morocco being the primary source regions — which moved across the Canary Islands and the adjacent East Atlantic Ocean on 22 February 2020. Along the coast of Morocco, surface visibility was reduced to 1/8 mile at Tan-Tan (GMAT); over the Canary Islands, visibility dropped to 1/4 mile at Gran Canaria (GCLP).

GOES-16 Dust Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images spanning the period 0800 UTC on 22 February to 2100 UTC on 23 February (below) provided a continuous day/night visualization of the first dust plume (shades of pink/magenta). During the day on 23 February, a second dust plume could be seen emerging from below a patch of mid/high-altitude clouds. The RGB images were created using Geo2Grid.

GOES-16 Dust RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Dust RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]

VIIRS True Color RGB images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 as viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed orographic waves in the airborne sand/dust downwind (northwest) of some of the Canary Islands on 23 February.

VIIRS True Color RGB images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

This sand/dust was being lofted by anomalously strong lower-tropospheric winds — which were up to 5 standard deviations above the mean at the 925 hPa pressure level (below).

925 hPa wind speed anomaly during the period 00 UTC on 22 February to 00 UTC on 24 February [click to enlarge]

925 hPa wind speed anomaly during the period 00 UTC on 22 February to 00 UTC on 24 February [click to enlarge]

===== 24 February Update =====

GOES-16 Dust RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Dust RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Dust RGB images on 24 February (above) showed the second major pulse of sand/dust curling around the northern periphery of the offshore cutoff low pressure system. Toward the end of the animation, another minor pulse could be seen streaming northwestward off the coast of Western Sahara. A longer Dust RGB animation from 08 UTC on 22 February to 18 UTC on 24 February is available here.

In addition to the Dust RGB, signatures of the airborne sand/dust were also evident in GOES-16 Split Window Difference (10.3-12.3 µm) and Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2-8.4 µm) imagery (below). This arises from the fact that silicates (sand/dust particles) have different energy absorption characteristics at varying wavelengths.

GOES-16 Dust RGB, Split Window Difference (10.3-12.3 µm) and Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2-8.4 µm) [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Dust RGB, Split Window Difference (10.3-12.3 µm) and Split Cloud Top Phase (11.2-8.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

A comparison of TROPOMI Aerosol Index, TROPOMI Aerosol layer height (meters), Meteosat-11 Natural Color RGB and Meteosat-11 Dust RGB images at 1515 UTC is shown below (credit: Bob Carp, SSEC). Note that the height of the center of the aerosol layer near the western tip of the plume was generally in the 500-1000 meter range (shades of blue to cyan).

Panel 1: TROPOMI Aerosol Index Panel 2: TROPOMI Aerosol layer height (meters) Panel 3: Meteosat-11 Natural Color RGB Panel 4: Meteosat-11 Dust RGB [click to enlarge]

TROPOMI Aerosol Index (top left), TROPOMI Aerosol layer height in meters (top right), Meteosat-11 Natural Color RGB (bottom left) and Meteosat-11 Dust RGB (bottom right) [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Split Window Difference image, with plots of available NUCAPS profile points [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Split Window Difference (10.3-12.3 µm) image, with plots of available NUCAPS profile points [click to enlarge]

A GOES-16 Split Window Difference (10.3-12.3 µm) image with plots of available NUCAPS profile points at 1600 UTC (above) denoted the locations of a sequence of 9 consecutive north-to-south sounding points through the western tip of the dust plume. Profiles of NUCAPS temperature and dew point data for those 9 points are shown below — the strong temperature inversion and dry air below 1 km at Points 6, 7 and 8 showed the presence of this dry, dust-laden air (and the Total Precipitable Water value dropped to a minimum value of 0.34 inch at Point 7).

Profiles of NUCAPS temperature and dew point data for Points 1-9 [click to enlarge]

Profiles of NUCAPS temperature and dew point data for Points 1-9 [click to enlarge]