GOES-17 Fog/Low Stratus (FLS) product availability in AWIPS

October 18th, 2021 |

GOES-17 MVFR Probability over the PACUS Sector [click to play animation]

The suite of Fog/Low Stratus (FLS) products derived using GOES-17 (GOES-West) data within the PACUS Sector (above) became available via the Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) for AWIPS on 18 October 2021. Two examples are shown below: one centered over Oregon, and the other centered over the Big Island of Hawai’i. The 4 products are Marginal Visual Flight Rules (MVFR, cloud ceiling 1000 to 3000 feet above ground level and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles) Probability, Instrument Flight Rules (IFR, cloud ceiling 500 feet to less than 1000 feet and/or visibility 1 to less than 3 miles) Probability, Low Instrument Flight Rules (LIFR, cloud ceiling less than 500 feet and/or visibility less than 1 mile) Probability and Cloud Thickness. 

GOES-17 MVFR Probability (top left), IFR Probability (top right), Low IFR Probability (bottom left) and Low Cloud Thickness (bottom right) [click to play animation]

GOES-17 MVFR Probability (top left), IFR Probability (top right), Low IFR Probability (bottom left) and Low Cloud Thickness (bottom right) [click to play animation] 

GOES-17 FLS products are also being produced by CIMSS over the Alaska region (below) — which are being distributed via an LDM feed.

GOES-17 MVFR Probability (top left), IFR Probability (top right), Low IFR Probability (bottom left) and Low Cloud Thickness (bottom right) [click to play animation]

A library of FLS applications can be found on the GOES-R Fog Product Examples site, and FLS Forecaster Training is available here.

Alisal Fire in Southern California

October 12th, 2021 |

GOES-17 True Color RGB images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

GOES-17 (GOES-West) True Color RGB images created using Geo2Grid (above) showed the transport of smoke from the Alisal Fire in Southern California on 12 October 2021. The dashed line in the images is Highway 101 — a portion of which was closed, as the wind-driven fire raced toward the coast. Late in the day some low-altitude smoke began to move eastward along the coast, eventually reducing the surface visibility to 6 miles at Santa Barbara.

During the preceding overnight hours (at 0916 UTC or 2:16 am PDT), a comparison of Suomi-NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared and Day/Night Band images (below) revealed the thermal signature and nighttime glow of the fire. The VIIRS imagery was downloaded and processed via the SSEC/CIMSS Direct Broadcast ground station.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

The Suomi-NPP overpass time of the fire region was actually 0926 UTC — and a time-matched comparison of Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-17 and Suomi-NPP (below) demonstrated that the superior spatial resolution of VIIRS instrument (~375 meters, vs ~2 km for the ABI on GOES-17) provided a more accurate depiction of the areal coverage of the fire.

Shortwave Infrared images from Suomi-NPP (3.74 µm) and GOES-17 (3.9 µm) [click to enlarge]

===== 13 October Update =====

GOES-17 True Color RGB images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

On 13 October, GOES-17 True Color RGB images (above) showed that as offshore wind speeds relaxed, a shift to onshore flow recirculated some of the smoke inland — with smoke briefly reducing the surface visibility to 1.5 miles at Santa Barbara airport (below). Farther to the south, residual smoke from the previous day of burning was also evident, with some of it traveling as far as Isla Guadalupe (Guadalupe Island) nearly 400 miles away.

Time series of surface observation data from Santa Barbara Municipal Airport [click to enlarge]

“Adrift” 1983 Hurricane (Raymond)

October 12th, 2021 |

GOES-6

GOES-6 was NOAA‘s operational satellite during the 1983 Hurricane Raymond, which was a Cat 4. This incredibly powerful storm was made famous in the 1998 book “Red Sky in Mourning: A True Story of Love, Loss, and Survival at Sea” written by Tami Oldham Ashcraft with Susea McGearhart, and also by the 2018 movie “Adrift”.

“[October 12, 1983]… About 1000 the seas arched into skyscrapers, looming over our boat. The anemometer– the wind speed gauge — now read a steady sixty knots [69 mph or 31 m/s] and we were forced to take down all sails and maintain our position under bare poles with the engine running … The wind sounded like jet engines being thrown in reverse. I looked at the anemometer and gasped when I read 140 knots [161 mph or 72 m/s] … I looked up at the ship’s clock: It was 1300 hours. My eyes dropped to the barometer: It was terrifyingly low — below twenty-eight-inch mark [948 hPa]. Dread engulfed me. I hugged the musty blanket to my chest as I was flung side to side in the hammock. No sooner had I closed my eyes when all motion stopped. Something felt very wrong, it became too quiet — this trough too deep. “OHMIGOD!” I heard Richard scream. My eyes popped open. WHOMP! I covered my head as I sailed into oblivion.”

From the book: Red Sky in Mourning: A True Story of Love, Loss, and Survival at Sea
GOES-6 IR loop from 13:15 UTC on October 11th, to 02:45 UTC on October 13th, 1983 in the eastern Pacific. The locations of the boat (Hazana) are approximate.

The above GOES-6 infrared satellite loop has been annotated with two approximate locations of the boat (Hazana), one of October 9th and the other on October 18th, 1983. While the location of the boat (in beige) on October 12th and it’s relationship to Hurricane Raymond is unknown, the boat must have received the brunt of the storm. A similar loop as above, but without the labels or grid lines. Or an image with only the grid lines and boat locations.

Multi-day, large-scale, visible loop of the daytime images from GOES-6 between October 8-13, 1983.

A similar visible loop, but animated twice as fast and as an animated gif. Note the development of the eye, along with the fast forward speed of the storm.

A higher resolution GOES-6 visible loop over the daytime hours of October 10th, 1983.

Similar GOES-6 visible loops (mp4) from October 11th and 12th, 1983 (and as animated gifs: October 11th and 12th).

A full spatial resolution GOES-6 visible loop over the daytime hours of October 10th, 1983.

Similar as above, full spatial resolution GOES-6 visible loops (mp4) views from October 11th and 12th, 1983 (and as animated gifs: October11th and 12th).

Multi-day infrared loop of the daytime images from GOES-6 between October 8-13, 1983.

Infrared (IR) imagery can monitor the storm throughout the day and night. Recall that a smaller hurricane eye can imply a more powerful storm.

…. “A tropical wave, later to become Hurricane Raymond, passed into the Pacific from Nicaragua on 5 October and moved westward at 8 m s-1. At this time, a deep-layer mean high center was over Mexico and a well developed ridge line extended westward toward the Hawaiian Islands. By 0600 GMT 8 October, infrared satellite imagery showed increasing cyclonic shear over the disturbance, and the first advisory on the cyclone was issued with the center near 12.4°N, 104.4°W. The depression moved due west at 2 m s-1, south of the mean ridge line, and over very warm 29-30°C water. Intensification to tropical storm occurred at 0000 GMT 9 October near 12.3°N, 106.4°W. Tropical Storm Raymond continued moving west, accelerated and intensified. By 1200 GMT 10 October, winds had reached 34 m s-1 and the storm was upgraded to a hurricane near· 12.0°N, 114.6°W. Raymond was now moving west at 8 m s-1 and a small but distinct eye had become visible near the center. Raymond then began to intensify rapidly (Fig. 22). Twenty-four hours later, the cyclone reached its maximum intensity of 64 m s-1 [143 mph] near 12.4°N, 121.2°W. Raymond then turned west-northwest, moving at 8 to 9 m s-1. With sea surface temperatures remaining above 27°C, Raymond moved across 140°W longitude with 57 m s-1 winds shortly after 0600 GMT on 14 October.

According to E. B. GUNTHER AND R. L. CROSS (1984) in the AMS MWR (Monthly Weather Review)

GOES-6 Full Disk image from October 10, 1983. This image combines visible imagery and cloud infrared temperatures.

A larger version of the above image. A similar image as above, but as seen by NOAA’s GOES-5, which was then the eastern GOES.

2020 – Hurricane Marie

Another long-lived eastern Pacific category 4 storm was Hurricane Marie in 2020 as detailed by NHC. Of course the more modern GOES-17 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) was able to acquire images more frequently and at a higher spatial resolution than was possible in 1983, as in shown in this CIMSS Satellite Blog post.

Animation of both visible and IR (cold pixels) bands of Hurricane Marie, 2020.

2021 – Hurricane Linda

GOES-15 band 3 (6.5 mircometer) band in August of 2021 over the Eastern Pacific.

A similar storm in August of 2021, as shown in a GOES-15 water vapor band loop over several days.

Credits

NOAA GOES-6 data (and other GOES) are via the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC Satellite Data Services. These images were made using the McIDAS-X software, developed at the UW/SSEC. Thanks for all who have made the entire suite of GOES possible, as well as the experimental satellites that preceded the operational ones. Much progress has been made in the monitoring of tropical cyclones between GOES-5/6 and the current advanced imagers. More GOES-16 and -17 imagery and other information. Scott Bachmeier is thanked for his help with this post.

 

Pyrocumulonimbus clouds spawned by the KNP Complex wildfire in California

October 4th, 2021 |

GOES-17 Visible (0.64 µm, center), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and Infrared Window (10.35 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation | MP4]

The KNP Complex wildfire continued to burn in central California on 04 October 2021, producing a pair of pyrocumulonimbus or pyroCb clouds — one during the atypical late morning hours (beginning around 1530 UTC, or 11:30 am PDT) and the other during the more typical late afternoon hours (beginning around 2130 UTC, or 5:30 PM PDT). 1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-17 (GOES-West) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed the pyroCB clouds, fire thermal anomalies or “hot spots” (clusters of red pixels) and cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures, respectively. The minimum 10.35 µm temperatures were near -60ºC. Note the relatively warm (darker gray) appearance of the pyroCb clouds in the 3.9 µm images — this is a characteristic signature of pyroCb cloud tops, driven by the smoke-induced shift toward smaller ice particles (which act as more efficient reflectors of incoming solar radiation, contributing to the warmer 3.9 µm brightness temperatures). Note: beginning at 1700 UTC, overlapping GOES-17 Mesoscale Sectors provided imagery at 30-second intervals.

1-minute GOES-17 True Color RGB images created using Geo2Grid (below) showed the first pyroCb cloud as it continued to move northeastward across the California/Nevada border, and then the second pyroCb cloud as it moved northwestward. The change in direction of motion was influenced by the approach of an offshore closed low from the west (250 hPa analysis: 12 UTC | 00 UTC). 

GOES-17 True Color RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]