Creating and Displaying gridded GLM fields using data from NOAA CLASS

March 23rd, 2021 |

GOES-16 Gridded GLM imagery of Total Optical Energy for the 1 minute ending 1501 UTC on 22 March 2021 (Click to enlarge)

This blog posts describes how to use NOAA’S CLASS (Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System) system (link) that contains Level-2 GLM data, (under the GOES-R Series GLM L2+ Data Product (GRGLMPROD) tab) to create useable GLM imagery. GLM processing produces three Level 2 files each minute, and those files can be processed to produce imagery. First, choose the time range you want in CLASS, and get the global imagery.  For this blog post, I chose GOES-16 data on 22 March 2021 between 15:00 an 15:15 UTC.  On the CLASS website, I clicked the GLM L2+ Lightning Detection Data and didn’t filter by any values (CLASS allows you to filter by minimum/maximum flash, event and group counts, if you want).  This request returned 47 different files, but that is only about 10 Mbytes.  Some of the file names — two minutes’ worth — are shown below: LCFA files from julian Day 081 (that is, 3/22/2021) starting at 15:00:00:00, 15:00:00:20, 15:00:00:40, … etc.


OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811500000_e20210811500203_c20210811500218.nc
OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811500200_e20210811500404_c20210811500425.nc
OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811500400_e20210811501003_c20210811501016.nc
OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811501000_e20210811501205_c20210811501226.nc
OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811501200_e20210811501403_c20210811501419.nc

Code to convert these files (that contain raw-ish group, event and flash fields) to gridded GLM fields (that can be displayed with, for example, Geo2Grid, or AWIPS) is within the CSPP Gridded GLM software package that can be downloaded here (free registration may be required; the Gridded GLM tarball to download includes a short and useful README). To create a data file that is properly configured for Geo2Grid (or AWIPS), with software that uses the open-source glmtools software developed by Dr. Eric Bruning at Texas Tech, use this command:

cspp-geo-gglm.sh ../../data/OR_GLM-L2-LCFA_G16_s20210811501*

That will create a file with a name like this:

CG_GLM-L2-GLMF-M3_G16_s20210811501000_e20210811502000_c20210821745120.nc;

Geo2Grid can then be used to create imagery from the newly-created netCDF file. The Geo2Grid code used is below.

../p2g_grid_helper.sh TestGridded -75.0 8. 1000 -1000 2000 750 > $GEO2GRID_HOME/TestGridded.conf
../geo2grid.sh -r glm_l2 -w geotiff -p total_energy -g TestGridded --grid-configs $GEO2GRID_HOME/TestGridded.conf --method nearest -f /home/scottl/CSPPGeo/GGLM/cspp-geo-gridded-glm-1.0b1/bin/CG_GLM-L2-GLMF-M3_G16_s20210811501000_e20210811502000_c20210821745120.nc
../add_colormap.sh ../../../enhancements/TotalEnergy.txt GOES-16_GLM_total_energy_20210322_150100_TestGridded.tif
../add_coastlines.sh --add-coastlines --coastlines-resolution=h --coastlines-outline='black' --add-grid --grid-text-size 12 --grid-d 1.0 1.0 --grid-D 1.0 1.0 --add-colorbar --colorbar-tick-marks 250.0 --colorbar-text-size 1 --colorbar-no-ticks --colorbar-align bottom GOES-16_GLM_total_energy_20210322_150100_TestGridded.tif
convert GOES-16_GLM_total_energy_20210322_150100_TestGridded.png -gravity Southwest -fill white -pointsize 24 -annotate +8+30 "1501 UTC 22 March 2021 Total Energy" GOES-16_GLM_total_energy_20210322_1501_Labeled.png

The Geo2Grid package commands above (1) created the grid (‘TestGridded’) onto which the data were interpolated; (2) created the imagery from the netCDF file output from the Gridded GLM package; (3) Added a pre-defined colormap (within ‘TotalEnergy.txt’); (4) Added coastlines, a lat/lon grid, and a colorbar and (5) annotated the image. This last command used ImageMagick.

Note that the GLM image created, shown at top, is mostly transparent. Three areas of GLM observations are apparent, two over South America, one over the Pacific Ocean south of Panama. The transparency is handy if you want to overlay GLM data on top of ABI imagery!

Monitoring severe weather as it happens

March 17th, 2021 |

NUCAPS/MADIS Lifted Index, GLM Group Density, GOES-16 Band 13 Infrared Imagery, and ProbSevere polygons, all at ~0939 UTC on 17 March 2021 (Click to enlarge) All imagery from RealEarth

When NOAA’s Storm Prediction Center issues a High Risk of severe weather (below), people sit up and take notice. Are there easily accessible tools to monitor the state of the atmosphere in/around a region of expected severe weather?

The toggle above shows products (early in the morning on 17 March — at 439 AM CDT) in RealEarth that can help. NOAA-Unique Combines Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS)/MADIS (Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System) Lifted Indices combine tropospheric information from NUCAPS profiles with lower-tropospheric/surface information from MADIS to create Lifted Index fields, twice daily. These fields are generated using HEAP (Hyper-spectral Enterprise Algorithm Package) software (incorporated into CSPP — the Community Software Processing Package) at the UW-CIMSS Direct Broadcast site. A Suomi-NPP (or NOAA-20) overpass will quickly yield stability information. Today’s afternoon Suomi-NPP overpasses occurs around 1730 UTC (east of the High Risk area) and 1915 UTC (Link, from this site.) The toggle above also includes GOES-16 Band 13 infrared (Clean Window, 10.3 µm) information, GLM Group Density, and NOAA/CIMSS ProbSevere (ProbSevere has a stand-alone RealEarth-based site here).  All of these products are useful in monitoring this evolving, dangerous event.   As is often the case, the strongest convection was occurring at 0939 UTC along the edges of the most unstable air, that is, in the instability gradient.

People within the region of elevated risk of Severe Weather on 17 March 2021, especially the region High Risk, should pay especial attention to the weather.

NOAA Storm Prediction Center Risk assessment for 17 March 2021, issued 1300 UTC on 17 March (Click to enlarge)


Added: the Geosphere site (link) gives rapid access to GOES-16 imagery (including mesoscale sectors) and can be used to monitor this evolving situation.


The afternoon image of stability is shown below.

NUCAPS/MADIS Lifted Index, GLM Group Density, and GOES-16 Band 13 Infrared Imagery, all at ~1830 UTC on 17 March 2021 (Click to enlarge) All imagery from RealEarth

Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data displayed with Geo2Grid

January 30th, 2021 |

GOES-16 ABI CONUS sector band 13 (Clean Window, 10.3 µm) infrared imagery, 1901-2001 UTC on 30 January 2021

Geo2Grid is a scripting tool that accesses various Python packages to display Geostationary Satellite data, described on this blog before here, here and here (Polar2Grid is a similar package for Low Earth Orbit satellite data).  The animation above shows GOES-16 Band-13 (Clean Window, 10.3 µm) infrared data for an hour over Oklahoma/Kansas/Missouri/Arkansas during a time when tornadoes occurred (imagery was produced using Geo2Grid and GOES-16 level-1b radiance files).  (SPC Storm Reports).

Gridded GLM data are available at this website;  both CONUS and Full Disk domains are available, CONUS data are a simple subset of the Full Disk imagery.  These netCDF files (with ‘GLMC’ in the filename) are available each minute, and contain a variety of gridded GLM products, some of which as distributed to National Weather Service forecast offices. By using the ‘glm_l2’ reader in Geo2Grid, data can be plotted, and subsequently overlain on top of the ABI imagery, as shown below.

GOES-16 ABI CONUS sector band 13 (Clean Window, 10.3 µm) infrared imagery, 1901-2001 UTC on 30 January 2021, overlain with GLM Total Optical Energy at 1-minute time steps (Click to animate)

Heavy rainfall and snowfall in Southern California

January 23rd, 2021 |

GOES-17 Air Mass RGB images, with contours of PV1.5 pressure [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Air Mass RGB images, with contours of PV1.5 pressure [click to play animation | MP4]

As an anomalously-deep 500 hPa low began to move inland over Southern California during the 23 January24 January 2021 period, GOES-17 (GOES-West)  Air Mass RGB images (above) showed a compact Potential Vorticity (PV) anomaly approaching the coast — and the RAP40 model indicated that the “dynamic tropopause” (defined here as the pressure of the PV1.5 surface) was descending to the 675 hPa pressure level at 18 UTC.

A west-to-east oriented cross section of RAP40 model fields along Line A-A’ (below) depicted the descending dynamic tropopause at 19 UTC.

Cross section of RAP40 model fields along line A-A' [click to enlarge]

Cross section of RAP40 model fields along line A-A’ [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images (below) showed the increasing reports of rain and snow that resulted as the PV Anomaly moved inland and provided additional forcing for ascent. Near the coast, thunderstorms were reported at Fulton and Long Beach around 03 UTC. Storm total precipitation amounts included rainfall of 1.40 inch and snowfall of 12-18 inches.

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface weather type [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with plots of hourly surface weather type [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Water Vapor images at 2301 UTC and 0246 UTC (below) revealed sporadic lightning activity (indicated by small clusters of GLM Groups).

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) image at 2301 UTC, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) image at 2301 UTC, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) image at 0246 UTC, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm) image at 0246 UTC, with GLM Groups plotted in red [click to enlarge]

===== 24 January Update =====

GOES-17 Day Snow-Fog RGB images [click t play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Day Snow-Fog RGB images [click to play animation | MP4]

On the following day, as clouds began to clear the areal extent of resulting fresh snow cover (darker shades of red) was seen in GOES-17 Day Snow-Fog RGB images (above). Even parts of the high desert — north and east of the mountain ranges — received some snowfall (for example, 2-3 inches were reported at Hesperia).

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and False Color RGB images (below) showed the snow cover (shades of cyan) at 2036 UTC.

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]