Stereoscopic views of Convection using GOES-16 and GOES-17

July 12th, 2018 |

GOES-16 (Left) and GOES-17 (Right) Visible (0.64 ) imagery, 1202-1907 UTC on 11 July 2018 (Click to play mp4 animation)

GOES-17 is currently in the test position at 89.5º W Longitude, and GOES-16 is at the GOES-East location at 75.2º W Longitude. This close spacing longitudinally means that stereoscopic three-dimensional views of visible imagery can be produced. The mp4 animation above (Click here for an animated gif) shows convection over the Tennessee River valley from 1202 through 1907 UTC on 11 July 2018 (with some gaps in time when GOES-17 data were not received).

To view the animation in three dimensions, cross your eyes so that three separate images are present.  Focus on the image in the middle.

Added, courtesy of Rick Kohrs, SSEC: When you create a Stretched ‘True Color’ image from the first 3 Channels on GOES-16/GOES-17, you can also see the curvature of the Earth in the stereoscopic view!

Stretched CIMSS Natural True Color imagery, combining Bands 1-3 on GOES-16 and GOES-17, 1400 UTC on 12 July 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-17 imagery in this blog post is preliminary and non-operational.

Hurricane Chris accelerates away from the United States

July 11th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI Band 2 (“Red Visible”) Visible (0.64 µm) Imagery, 1852-2117 UTC on 11 July 2018 (Click to animate)

Hurricane Chris is accelerating away from the United States (although it will likely pass very close to Cape Race, Newfoundland Canada). Visible Imagery (GOES-16 ABI Band 2, “Red Visible”, at 0.64 µm), above, from late afternoon on 11 July shows a well-developed storm with a pronounced eye.

Before Sunrise on 11 July 2018, both NOAA-20 and JAXA’s Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) Satellite overflew the storm at slightly different times.  The VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument NOAA-20 samples in the visible and infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum whereas the AMSR2 Instrument (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) on GCOM samples in the microwave.  Because microwave energy can penetrate clouds, it can be used to estimate rainfall, and the toggle below steps through the Infrared (11.45 µm) and Day Night Band Visible (0.70 µm) from VIIRS (at 0645 UTC) as well as the Convective Precipitation and Surface Rain rate from AMSR2 (at 0618 UTC). 

Lunar illumination is absent  in the Day Night band visible imagery, but Earth glow nevertheless illuminates the eye of the storm;  in addition, two lightning streaks are visible north and east of the center.  Surface Rain and Convective Rain rates show the heaviest rains near the storm center, as expected (NOAA-20 VIIRS and GCOM AMSR2 imagery courtesy William Straka, CIMSS).

VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) and Visible (0.70 µm) Day Night Band Visible Imagery, 0645 UTC on 11 July 2018, and GCOM AMSR2 Convective Precipitation and Surface Rain Rate estimates at 0618 UTC on 11 July (Click to enlarge)

Natural gas explosion and fire in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin

July 10th, 2018 |

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) image and Fire Temperature derived product [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) imagery and Fire Temperature derived product [click to play animation | MP4]

An explosion triggered by a damaged natural gas main in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin occurred around 0005 UTC / 7:05 pm CDT on 10 July 2018 (media story). Layered cloudiness was passing over the region at the time of the initial explosion, but once the clouds cleared a thermal signature (blue pixel) was seen from 0247 to 0342 UTC on the GOES-16 (GOES-East) Fire Temperature product (above) as the fire burned into the nighttime hours. The maximum Fire Temperature value was 537.6 K at 0332 UTC / 10:32 pm CDT.

A thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (dark black pixels) was apparent on 1-km resolution Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) imagery (below) at 0338 UTC / 10:38 pm CDT. The maximum infrared brightness temperature on the MODIS image was 335.4 K.

Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image, with plots of surface observations in yellow [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image, with plots of surface observations in yellow [click to enlarge]

A very subtle thermal anomaly (darker gray pixels) was still evident after 07 UTC / 2 am CDT on Suomi NPP and Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared images (below).

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS, Suomi NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared images [click to enlarge]



Hurricane Chris

July 10th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed Chris as it rapidly intensified (ADT | SATCON) to a Category 1 Hurricane by 2100 UTC (NHC discussion) on 10 July 2018.

A toggle between 375-meter resolution NOAA-20 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (below) revealed cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures as cold as -81ºC (violet enhancement) in a convective burst just northeast of the eye. [Note: the 1821 UTC NOAA-20 images are incorrectly labeled as Suomi NPP images]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Earlier in the day, a GPM satellite GMI Microwave (85 GHz) image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed that Tropical Storm Chris had not yet formed a closed eye at 1326 UTC.

GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

However, a MIMIC-TC animation spanning the 0000 to 1925 UTC time period (below) showed the eye formation process completing as the estimated maximum speed (Vmax) increased from 60 to 75 knots.

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave image product [click to enlarge]

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave image product [click to enlarge]