Strong midlatitude cyclone north of Hawai’i

February 10th, 2019 |
GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational *

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from the AOS site (above) showed the distinct circulation of a strong midlatitude cyclone (surface analyses) that was centered just north of Hawai’i on 10 February 2019. The pressure gradient associated with this storm produced strong winds across the island chain. Wave heights to 38.4 feet were recorded at Buoy 51208 near Kaua’i, with wind gusts to 57 knots at Buoy 51001 northwest of Kauwa’i.



GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below) revealed the presence of numerous lee waves which extended hundreds of miles downwind of the islands — most notable were those emanating from Kauwa’i.

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

Derived Motion Winds calculated using GOES-15 (GOES-West) Water Vapor (6.5 µm) imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed targets with velocites of 150-160 knots just north of Hawai’i at 09 UTC and 12 UTC.

Derived Motion Winds calculated using GOES-15 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) imagery [click to enlarge]

Derived Motion Winds calculated using GOES-15 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) imagery [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Air Mass RGB images (below) showed the orange to red hues signifying a lowered tropopause and increased stratospheric ozone within the atmospheric column as the storm evolved during the 09-10 February time period.

GOES-17 Air Mass RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-17 Air Mass RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 23 UTC as viewed using RealEarth are shown below.

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 23 UTC [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 23 UTC [click to enlarge]

Cold temperatures in Montana and North Dakota

February 8th, 2019 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Very cold surface air temperatures occurred in northeastern Montana and northwestern North Dakota on the morning of 08 February 2019 — with official lows of -50ºF near Antelope and Four Buttes in Montana and -47ºF at Bottineau in North Dakota (and according to MesoWest, -49ºF was registered at a Department of Transportation site west of Crosby in far northwestern North Dakota). GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) revealed surface brightness temperatures across those areas were as cold as -47ºC (-53ºF).

A sequence of VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (below) showed similar surface brightness temperatures, with some pixels as cold as -48ºC (-54ºF). The color enhancement applied to the VIIRS images is the same as that used on the GOES-16 images above, with the red colors beginning at the -40ºC breakpoint (violets begin at -50ºC). While there is not a direct correspondence between satellite-sensed surface infrared brightness temperatures and air temperatures measured in an above-ground instrument shelter, with improving satellite spatial resolution the difference is often within 1-3ºC (or 2-5ºF).

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP (at 0753 and 0937 UTC) and NOAA-20 (at 0844 UTC) [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP (at 0753 and 0937 UTC) and NOAA-20 (at 0844 UTC) [click to enlarge]



Cloud-top waves producing turbulence north of Hawai’i

February 6th, 2019 |
GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational *

Transient pockets of cloud-top waves were evident on GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (above) north of Hawai’i on 06 February 2019. Some of the waves were located along the tops of convective cloud features, while others appeared to be randomly distributed.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Lihue, Hawai’i (below) showed that winds within the middle to upper troposphere had a general westerly component — so these mesoscale cloud-top wave features were oriented perpendicular to the flow.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Lihue, Hawai'i [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Lihue, Hawai’i [click to enlarge]

There was only 1 pilot report of turbulence within the broad region exhibiting these waves, occurring at 2304 UTC at an altitude of 33,000 feet — and this appeared to coincide with a discrete wave packet that was propagating eastward (below).

GOES-17 Upper-level Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images within 30 minutes of the 2304 UTC pilot report of turbulence [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Upper-level Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images within 30 minutes of the 2304 UTC pilot report of turbulence [click to enlarge]

While the more robust wave packets could also be seen in GOES-17 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (below), their complete areal coverage was more obvious in the Water Vapor imagery — particularly where the wave features were more subtle.

GOES-17 Upper-level Water Vapor (6.2 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images at 2302 UTC [click to enlarge]

Aviation advisories for Significant Weather (SIGWX) had been issued for that region (below), which included a Moderate risk for Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) from 28,000-39,000 feet and the possibility of isolated/embedded Cumulonimbus (CB) clouds with tops to 38,000 feet, along with a west-northwest high-level jet stream from 290º at 90 knots. The pilot report of turbulence at 33,000 feet included winds from 261º at 81 knots.

GOES-17 Upper-level Water Vapor (6.2 µm) image, with plots of aviation Significant Weather advisories [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 Upper-level Water Vapor (6.2 µm) image, with plots of aviation Significant Weather advisories that were in effect at that time [click to enlarge]

The cloud-top waves were also seen in a sequence of VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP, viewed using RealEarth (below).

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 (at 2230 and 0030 UTC) and Suomi NPP (at 2320 UTC) [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 (at 2230 and 0030 UTC) and Suomi NPP (at 2320 UTC) [click to enlarge]

Cyclogenesis along the US East Coast

February 4th, 2019 |


The approach of an upper-tropospheric Potential Vorticity (PV) anomaly induced rapid cyclogenesis just off the US East Coast on 04 February 2019, with the surface low rapidly occluding (surface analyses). The eastward-propagating PV Anomaly was apparent on GOES-16 (GOES-East) Air Mass RGB images from the AOS site (below) as darker shades of orange — transitioning to shades of red as the tropopause descended to lower altitudes bringing more ozone-rich air from the stratosphere into the atmospheric column.

GOES-16 Air Mass RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Air Mass RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

A sequence of Infrared Window images from Terra MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (below) showed the cyclone at various stages of development. The surface low passed over  the Cape Lookout, North Carolina buoy as it was intensifying, with winds gusting to 44 knots around 12 UTC (winds/pressure | peak wind gusts).

Infrared Window images from Terra MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm), with plot of fixed buoy reports [click to enlarge]

Infrared Window images from Terra MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm), with plots of fixed buoy reports [click to enlarge]

A similar sequence of Visible images from Terra MODIS (0.65 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (0.64 µm) (below) showed the cyclone during daylight hours.

Visible images from Terra MODIS (0.65 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (0.64 µm), with plots of fixed buoy reports [click to enlarge]

Visible images from Terra MODIS (0.65 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (0.64 µm), with plots of fixed buoy reports [click to enlarge]

===== 05 February Update =====

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

After the primary center of circulation began to weaken, a pair of residual lower-tropospheric vortices (surface analyses) was seen to persist on GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above), rotating around each other in a binary interaction known as the Fujiwhara effect. The two vortices were also evident in NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0620 UTC (below) — in spite of the lack of illumination from a New Moon, airglow alone was sufficient to provide an impressive “visible image at night” with the Day/Night Band. (note: the NOAA-20 VIIRS images are incorrectly labeled as Suomi NPP)

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0620 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0620 UTC [click to enlarge]

During the early morning hours, an undular bore was evident on GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below), moving toward the westernmost vortex. As the bore began to move over warmer waters of the Gulf Stream, it slowly dissipated.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Although not particularly intense, this slow-moving midlatitude cyclone was able to draw an appreciable amount of moisture northward from the tropics/subtropics as shown by the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below).

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]