Tropical Storm Cindy

June 24th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface//ship/buoy reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface//ship/buoy reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

** GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing **

As Tropical  Storm Bret was forming off the coast of South America, Potential Tropical Cyclone 3 (PTC3) was becoming more organized as it moved from the western Caribbean Sea across the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and into the Gulf of Mexico on 19 June 2017 (MIMIC TPW). On 20 June, one of the GOES-16 Mesoscale Sectors was positioned  over PTC3 and  provided 1-minute imagery — Visible  (0.64 µm)  and  Infrared Window (10.3  µm) images (above) showed deep convective bursts moving northward to reveal an exposed Low Level Circulation Center (LLCC).

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface/buoy/ship reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly surface/buoy/ship reports plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

Early in the day on 21 June, 1-minute GOES-16 Visible and Infrared Window images (above) showed multiple LLCC features associated with PTC3, with deep convection remaining well to the north/northwest. In addition, Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9  µm) images (below) indicated that a large amount of dry air had wrapped into the southern and eastern portions of the storm circulation.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Water Vapor (6..9 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Water Vapor (6..9 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

However, by mid-day a more consolidated central circulation had developed, as seen on Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (below) — and PTC3 was upgraded to Tropical Storm Cindy.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images, with surface pressure plotted in yellow and station identifiers plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images, with surface pressure plotted in yellow and station identifiers plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

Hourly images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product covering the 19-24 June period (below) showed  the northward transport of rich tropical moisture into the Gulf  Coast states, which then moved northeastward toward the Northeast US bringing heavy rainfall and flooding to many locations (WPC storm summary).

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water [click to play animation]

Maps of daily rainfall during the 21-24 June period (along with 7-day rainfall totals, departure from normal and percent of normal) are shown below.

21-24 June daily precipitation, along with 7-day Precipitation Total, 7-day Departure from Normal and 7-day Percent of Normal [click to enlarge]

21-24 June daily precipitation, along with 7-day Precipitation Total, 7-day Departure from Normal and 7-day Percent of Normal [click to enlarge]

Deadly Fire in Portugal

June 18th, 2017 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Visible Imagery (0.70 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

(Images in this blog post were created by William Straka, SSEC. Thanks William!!)

Parts of Pedrogao Grande in central Portugal (northeast of Lisbon) burned over the weekend in a massive forest fire. At least 62 people were killed (News Link; Youtube Video 1, 2). Suomi NPP overflew the region shortly after the fire started, and annotated VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) Day/Night Band imagery is shown above (Click here for an image without annotation).  The size of the bright light signature from the fire (overlain with thin clouds) rivals that of Lisbon.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared imagery ( 3.75 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Shortwave Infrared channels on Suomi NPP also testify to the intensity of the fire. The 3.75 µm above (Click here for an image with no labels) shows a saturated pixel (exceeding 367 K) over the hottest part of the fire.  The 1.61 µm channel in the near infrared also had a strong signal.   The 4.05 µm imagery (Click here for an image without annotation) shown below had a maximum brightness temperature exceeding 550 K! (This channel was specifically designed for fire detection).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared Imagery (4.05 µm) at 0240 UTC on 18 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Meteosat-10 Severi Infrared Imagery (3.9 µm) from 0000 to 0400 UTC on 18 June 2017 (click to enlarge)

The SEVERI Instrument on Meteosat-10 also detected this fire, and because Meteosat is geostationary, it provided better temporal coverage vs. the single snapshot from Suomi NPP. The animation above shows considerable cloud cover over Portugal, but very warm pixels are present starting after 0145 UTC. The toggle below compares 3.9 µm SEVIRI at 0245 UTC with 3.75 µm Suomi NPP VIIRS at 0240 UTC. The better spatial resolution of the VIIRS instrument is apparent, as are much warmer temperatures as expected given the smaller pixel size on VIIRS.  Note also a slight parallax shift.

Shortwave Infrared Imagery (3.9 µm from Meteosat-10 SEVIRI at 0245 UTC and 3.75 µm from Suomi NPP VIIRS at 0240 UTC) over Portugal (Click to enlarge)


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Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band visible (0.70 µm) imagery at 0145 UTC on 19 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Data from the 0145 UTC 19 June overpass on Suomi NPP show that the fire continues, although with less intensity. The Day/Night Band (above) and the 3.75 µm Shortwave Infrared (below) show the fire locations.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm) imagery at 0145 UTC on 19 June 2017 (Click to enlarge)

 

Large MCS affects Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas and Missouri

June 17th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with plots of SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with plots of SPC storm reports [click to play MP4 animation]

** GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing **

A large Mesoscale Convective System (MCS)  developed over eastern Nebraska late in the day on 16 June 2017, which continued  to grow in size as it  propagated southeastward  and produced severe weather across western Iowa, northeastern Kansas  and northwestern Missouri during  the subsequent overnight hours (SPC storm reports). GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) include plots of time-matched  SPC storm reports;  the report locations are parallax-corrected to match those of the cloud tops. The strong winds downed  numerous trees and power lines;  Kansas City Power & Light reported  that as many as 93,000 customers — more than 10 percent — were without power within the utility’s service area (which covers 46 counties in Kansas and Missouri).

In a comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at  0721 UTC or 2:21 am local time on 17 June (below), the Day/Night Band image showed a bright cluster of lightning streaks (cloud tops illuminated by intense lightning activity) straddling the Kansas/Missouri border. Note how the city lights of the Kansas City area were almost completely attenuated by the dense and vertically thick MCS core, while a diffuse signature of city lights was seen through the thin cirrus canopy around the edges of the storm. Packets of cloud-top gravity waves evident on both images, and the coldest cloud-top Infrared brightness temperatures were -85º  C (darker violet color enhancement), located in both Kansas and Missouri.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11..45 µm) images, with cumulative plots of SPC storm reports [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11..45 µm) images, with cumulative plots of SPC storm reports [click to enlarge]

Lake Superior lake breeze and marine stratus

June 14th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

** GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing **

GOES-!6 Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) revealed the presence of a well-defined lake breeze boundary on 14 June 2017, which extended well inland from Lake Superior across northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. This shallow pool of lake-cooled air was acting to suppress the formation  of inland cumulus clouds and  maintain marine layer fog/stratus over the water and the adjacent coast  — both of which slowed the warming of surface air temperatures. For example, in northwestern Wisconsin, Hayward Sawyer County Airport (KHYR) reached an afternoon high temperature of 81º F, while not far to the northwest Duluth Sky Harbor Airport (KDYT) only reached an afternoon high of 52º F as fog and stratus shrouded the site and held temperatures in the 40s F much of the day. Note that a few bore-like wave structures were seen in the lake stratus.

A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) imagery at 1803 UTC with RTMA surface winds at 18 UTC (below) showed the flow and cloud features associated with the lake breeze.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) image, with RTMA surface winds [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) image, with RTMA surface winds [click to enlarge]