Typhoon Tiffany makes landfall in Australia

January 9th, 2022 |

JMA Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

JMA Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) showed Tropical Cyclone Tiffany as it made landfall along the eastern coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia on 09 January 2022. [UPDATE: just prior to making landfall around 0130 UTC on 10 January, Tiffany intensified to a Category 1 typhoon (JTWC discussion)].

A longer animation of Himawari-8 Infrared (10.4 µm) images (below) revealed pulses of overshooting tops which exhibited cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures in the -90 to -95°C range.

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

A stepped sequence of zoomed-in Suomi-NPP VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) images at 1517 UTC, viewed using RealEarth (below) showed a few red pixels — which highlighted cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -100°C or colder.   

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Infrared (11.45 µm) image at 1517 UTC [click to enlarge]

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed convection wrapping around a very small eye feature at 1905 UTC.

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Infrared images with contours of deep-layer wind shear (below) indicated that Tiffany was moving through an environment of light to moderate shear. 

JMA Himawari-8 Infrared images, with contours of deep-layer wind shear [click to enlarge]

Marshall Fire near Boulder, Colorado

December 30th, 2021 |

GOES-16 Fire Temperature RGB (top left), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, top right), Fire Power (bottom left) and Fire Temperature (bottom right), [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

GOES-16 Fire Temperature RGB, Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) Fire Power and Fire Temperature derived products (above) showed rapid expansion of the Marshall Fire’s thermal signature in Boulder County, Colorado on 30 December 2021. The earliest unambiguous fire signature appeared on the 1841 UTC image (11:41 am MST); the maximum 3.9 µm infrared brightness temperature was 110.96ºC (at 2021 UTC), the peak Fire Power was 1848.94 MW (at 2031 UTC) and the peak Fire Temperature was 1632.94 K (at 2031 UTC). The fire burned over 6000 acres in less than 24 hours, and destroyed or damaged over 1000 homes and businesses (making it the most destructive wildfire on record for the state of Colorado).

A comparison of Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-17 (GOES-West) and GOES-16 (GOES-East) is shown below. As was the case above, the earliest unambiguous fire thermal signature appeared on the 1841 UTC images from both satellites. Beginning at 2100 UTC, a GOES-17 Mesoscale Domain Sector was positioned over the region to monitor the ongoing fire, which provided images at 1-minute intervals.

Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images from GOES-17 (left) and GOES-16 (right) [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

GOES-17 and GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below) revealed the rapid development of a band of pronounced warming/drying — indicative of strong mountain wave subsidence — over the Front Range (centered near the Boulder KBOU area), along with additional mountain waves extending to the east. The band of strong mountain wave subsidence helped to transfer the momentum of strong westerly winds aloft (Boulder rawinsondes) downward to the surface; the rapid spread of the fire was driven by very strong surface winds, gusting to speeds over 100 mph.

GOES-17 (left) and GOES-16 (right) Upper-level (6.2 µm, top), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Low-level (7.3 µm, bottom) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 True Color RGB images created using Geo2Grid (below) highlighted the smoke plume, which drifted as far eastward as Nebraska and Kansas by sunset. Note the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (particularly along the northern edge) as lee-side mountain waves distorted the smoke plume. Smoke briefly reduced the surface visibility to 1.5 miles at Denver International Airport — and farther to the east, the visibility dropped to 7 miles at Fort Morgan. Several other narrow plumes of blowing dust could be seen moving eastward across the eastern Colorado plains (which was experiencing severe to extreme drought). 

GOES-16 True Color RGB images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

1-minute GOES-17 True Color RGB images are shown below.

GOES-17 True Color RGB images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

VIIRS Fire RGB images from Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 as viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the coverage of the Marshall Fire (cluster of red pixels) at 3 time periods.

VIIRS Fire RGB images from Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

===== 31 December Update =====

VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) from Suomi-NPP [click to enlarge]

During the subsequent nighttime hours, a VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) from Suomi-NPP (above) displayed thermal anomalies associated with active fire pockets that continued to burn at 0925 UTC or 2:25 am MST. 

Texas oil refinery explosion and fire

December 23rd, 2021 |

GOES-17 (left) and GOES-16 (right) Near-Infrared and Shortwave Infrared images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

An explosion and fire occurred at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baytown, Texas around 12:50 AM (0650 UTC) on 23 December 2021 — and a comparison of GOES-17 (GOES-West) vs GOES-16 (GOES-East) Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.24µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9µm) images (above) displayed the thermal signature of the fire. The maximum 3.9 µm infrared brightness temperature sensed by GOES-16 was 343.02 K (compared to 337.82 K by GOES-17).

GOES-16 Plume RGB images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS/ASPB) [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

GOES-16 (above) and GOES-17 (below) Plume RGB images created using Geo2Grid also helped to highlight the thermal signature of the fire (red pixels).

GOES-17 Plume RGB images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS/ASPB) [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

In a time-matched comparison of Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-16 and Suomi-NPP about 1.5 hours after the initial refinery explosion (below), the GOES-16 thermal signature was beginning to diminish (exhibiting an infrared brightness temperature of 14.7ºC) while the higher spatial resolution Suomi-NPP VIIRS shortwave infrared brightness temperature was notably warmer at 26.2ºC.

Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-16 and Suomi-NPP [click to enlarge]

Super Typhoon Rai

December 18th, 2021 |

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

For the second time during its life cycle, Typhoon Rai reached Category 5 intensity (ADT | SATCON) east of Vietnam during the 18-19 December 2021 period. JMA Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -90C and colder at times around the eye.

 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP as viewed using RealEarth (below) provided a more detailed view of Rai around the time that it reached Category 5 intensity.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP [click to enlarge]

3 days earlier, Rai first reached reached Category 5 intensity at 0000 UTC on 16 December, shortly before making landfall in the Philippines; 2.5-minute Himawari-8 Infrared images (below) revealed a small-diameter “pinhole” eye. As Rai moved across the Philippines, it was responsible for hundreds of fatalities in addition to widespread flooding and power outages.

Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]