An experimental version of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product which uses the MIRS retrieval TPW from POES, Metop, and Suomi NPP VIIRS satellites (below) revealed the band of high moisture pooled along the Mei-yu front, which appeared to surge northward across eastern China early in the day on 23 June.The 23 June/00 UTC rawinsonde report from Nanjing (located about 260 km southwest of Yancheng) indicated a total precipitable water value of 66.2 mm or 2.6 inches (below).
Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images at 0801 UTC or 3:01 am local time (above) showed cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were as cold as -83º C (violet color enhancement), along with a number of bright streaks on the Day/Night Band image due to cloud illumination by intense lightning activity (there were around 5000 cloud-to-ground lightning strikes associated with this MCS). On the infrared image, note the presence of cloud-top gravity waves propagating outward away from the core of overshooting tops.
This MCS produced heavy rainfall, with as much as 3.44 inches reported near Lomax (NWS Midland TX rainfall map | PNS). An animation of radar reflectivity (below, courtesy of Brian Curran, NWS Midland) showed the strong convective cells moving southward (before the Midland radar was struck by lightning and temporarily rendered out of service).During the subsequent daytime hours, GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) revealed the presence of a large and well-defined Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) as the cirrus canopy from the decaying MCS eroded. A fantastic explanation of this MCV was included in the afternoon forecast discussion from NWS Dallas/Fort Worth. New thunderstorms were seen to develop over North Texas during the late afternoon and early evening hours as the MCV approached — there were isolated reports of hail and damaging winds with this new convection (SPC storm reports). Initiation of this new convection may have also been aided by convergence of the MCV with a convective outflow boundary moving southward from Oklahoma. A sequence of Visible images from POES AVHRR (0.86 µm), Terra MODIS (0.65 µm), and Suomi NPP VIIRS (0.64 µm) (below) showed snapshots of the MCV at various times during the day.
A higher resolution view was provided by POES AVHRR Visible (0.86 µm) and Infrared (12.0 µm) imagery at 2332 UTC (below) — details of the overshooting top, anvil plume, and enhanced-V signature showed up very well in the 1-km resolution images.
Although the storm produced a funnel cloud (prompting the issuance of Canada’s first tornado warning of 2016):
— The Weather Network (@weathernetwork) June 10, 2016
no tornado was confirmed. There were reports of golfball-size hail at Lauder (located just northeast of Melita, Manitoba CWEI) and wind gusts to 96 km/hour or 56 knots at Killarney (located east of Melita).
POES AVHRR CLAVR-x Cloud Top Temperature and Cloud Top Height products (below) indicated minimum values of -76º C and maximum values of 13 km, respectively.A surface frontal analysis (below) showed that the thunderstorms formed in the broad warm sector of a large occluded low pressure system centered in Saskatchewan, with a secondary low moving eastward across northern North Dakota — the RTMA surface wind field depicted the broad southerly flow of warm, moist air into Manitoba ahead of the storms (in addition to an interesting area of strong southwesterly flow into the rear flank of the storm).
During the late afternoon and early evening, GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below; also available as a large 59 Mbyte animated GIF) revealed additional thunderstorms which produced hail and damaging winds across eastern Missouri and southern Illinois (SPC storm reports). These storms fired along an outflow boundary left in the wake of another mesoscale convective system (MCS) that moved through the region earlier in the day.Side note: there was a planned outage of GOES-14 SRSO-R imagery from 1059-2119 UTC. During this time, the GOES-13 (GOES-East) satellite had been placed into Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) mode, providing images as frequently as every 5-7 minutes. Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed the mesoscale convective system that produced hail as large as 4.0 inches in diameter in the St. Louis, Missouri area. Finally, late in the day another MCS developed in North Texas, just west of the Dallas/Fort Worth area. GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images with parallax-corrected SPC storm reports (below; also available as a large 54 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the large hail and damaging winds produced by this storm. One feature of interest was the “storm-top plume” that emanated from the largest cluster of overshooting tops, and was blown northeastward.