Hurricane Irma in the eastern Atlantic Ocean

September 1st, 2017 |
Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images (Click to enlarge)

Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images (Click to enlarge)

A toggle between nighttime images of Suomi NPP VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) data at 0347 UTC (courtesy of William Straka, SSEC/CIMSS) showed a high-resolution view of the eye of Category 3 Hurricane Irma.

 

Toggle of CIMSS True Color, GOES-16 Split Window Difference (10.3 µm – 12.3 µm) field, and GOES-16 Dust RGB Product, 1315 UTC on 1 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data (ABI and GLM) posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

The animation above cycles through imagery from 1315 UTC on 1 September, showing CIMSS GOES-16 True Color Imagery, The GOES-16 Split Window Difference (10.3 µm – 12.3 µm), and the GOES-16 Dust RGB (Red-Green-Blue) Product. The Split Window Difference field highlights moist air (bright red in the enhancement) to the south of Irma, and also dryer air (blue in the color enhancement), to the north. The Saharan Air Analysis, below, from the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website, corroborates the placement of the dry air to the north of Irma, and Total Precipitable Water estimates (from here) also show dry air. This dry air could influence further strengthening of the storm in the short term.

Saharan Air Layer analysis on 01 September 2017 (Click to animate)

Irma is near the eastern edge of the GLM Domain for GOES-16 in the central Test position at 89.5 W Longitude; the animation below, with GLM Group information (every 10 minutes) over ABI Band 13 (10.3 µm, every 30 minutes from the Full Disk Domain), shows little lightning near the center of Irma on 30/31 August. Lightning was more active on 1 September.

GOES-16 ABI “Clean Window” 10.3 µm Infrared Imagery, every half hour, with GLM Group Data plotted in 10-minute increments from 0000 UTC on 30 September through 1200 UTC on 1 September 2017 (Click to animate)

Satellite trends with Irma show the development of an eye structure, as seen below in the screen capture from the GOES-13 Floater (source) at 1745 UTC, and DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) at 1829 UTC on 1 September.

GOES-13 10.7 µm Infrared Imagery, 1745 UTC, 1 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

The evolution of the eye is also apparent in the GOES-16 Visible Imagery (0.64 µm), below, from 1315-1815 UTC on 1 September 2017.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) Imagery, 1315-1815 UTC, 1 September 2017 (Click to animate)

For more information on Irma, consult the webpages of the National Hurricane Center or the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website.

Hurricane Gert

August 15th, 2017 |

GOES-16 imagery (all 16 ABI Bands) from 1912-2132 UTC, 15 August 2017 [click to play animation]

GOES-16 imagery (all 16 ABI Bands) from 1912-2132 UTC, 15 August 2017 [click to play animation]

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

Hurricane Gert, a Category-1 storm on the Saffir-Simpson scale, is over the open Atlantic Ocean east of Cape Hatteras. It is close enough to the USA, however, that it is within GOES-16’s CONUS domain where 5-minute sampling is routine. The animation above shows all 16 channels from GOES-16 ABI, every five minutes from 1912-2132 UTC on 15 August 2017. A distinct eye is not apparent in the visible or infrared satellite imagery, but microwave data (from here) suggests an eye is present, at least at times. A comparison of 2035 UTC DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and 2045 UTC GOES-13 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images can be seen here.

The low-level Water Vapor imagery, below, shows that Gert is south and east of a front along the East Coast. This front should steer the storm to the north and east. Swells from the storm will affect the East Coast however.

GOES-16 imagery Low-Level Water Vapor (7.34 µm) Infrared Imagery from 1832-2137 UTC, 15 August 2017 [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Low-Level Water Vapor (7.34 µm) Infrared Imagery from 1832-2137 UTC, 15 August 2017 [click to play animation]

For more information on Gert, consult the website of the National Hurricane Center, or the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website.

GOES-16 ABI Imagery from the morning of 16 August 2017, below, shows that an eye has appeared in visible and infrared imagery.

GOES-16 imagery (all 16 ABI Bands) from 1117-1337 UTC, 16 August 2017 [click to play animation]

GOES-16 imagery (all 16 ABI Bands) from 1117-1337 UTC, 16 August 2017 [click to play animation]

A closer view using 1-minute interval GOES-16 Mesoscale Sector “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, below, showed that  the most vigorous areas of deep convection were generally confined to the northern semicircle of the eyewall region — cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were as cold as -80º C (violet color enhancement) at times.

GOES-16 Visible (0,64 µm, top) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, top) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Hurricane Dora

June 26th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

** GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing **

Dora became the first hurricane of the Eastern Pacific 2017 season on 26 June, and was also the first hurricane to be sampled by GOES-16. On Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above), Dora displayed an improving appearance as the day progressed — mesovortices were seen within the eye on Visible imagery, while the overall eye/eyewall structure improved as the eye diameter increased on Infrared Window imagery.

Early in the morning, a comparison between DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed  that a well-defined eye was more apparent on microwave imagery. Dora was moving over fairly warm Sea Surface Temperatures, and was also in an environment characterized by low values of deep-layer wind shear.

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

DMSP-17 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Tropical Storm Arlene

April 20th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 um, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 um, right) images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 um, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 um, right) images, with hourly ship reports when available [click to play animation]

** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

A comparison of GOES-16 Visible (0.64 um) and Infrared Window (10.3 um) images (above) showed the development of Tropical Storm Arlene in the Atlantic Ocean on 20 April 2017.  Arlene has been one of only two tropical storms to be observed in the Atlantic Basin during the month of April in the satellite era.

A DMSP-15 SSMI Microwave (85 GHz) image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) revealed the formative stage of a convective ring around the core of Arlene at 1654 UTC.

DMSP-15 SSMI Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

9below DMSP-15 SSMI Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

The MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below) showed that Tropical Depression 1 / Arlene was embedded within a plume of modest TPW (30-40 mm) which was wrapping into a large mid-latitude cyclone to the west.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product, with surface analyses [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product, with surface analyses [click to play animation]