GOES World

May 18th, 2022 |
GOES-17, -18, -16 (West-to-Central-to-East) CIMSS Natural Color imagery at local noon, 15 May 2022. GOES-18 is Preliminary/Non-Operational (click to enlarge)

The image above (credit to Rick Kohrs from SSEC/CIMSS) shows Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from GOES-17 (West), GOES-18 (Central, Preliminary/Non-Operational), and GOES-16 (East) on 15 May 2022. This “Local Noon CIMSS Natural Color” image is created by blending vertical strips of true-color imagery at local noon, starting in the east and proceeding westward. This was a rare opportunity for the GOES-R Series as GOES-18 was only at the central location (89.5W) for a limited time. A larger (5509×4207) version of this image is also available.

Other CIMSS Blog entries have introduced GOES-18, the latest in the GOES-R series. NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18 (including this 2-min video). GOES-T was launched on 1 March 2022. Currently GOES-18 is “drifting” out west to be near the “West” position. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 (GOES-18 Post Launch Test and Transition Plan) after a thorough post-launch test period.

SSEC/CIMSS scientists (notably Rick Kohrs) create daily imagery that blends vertical strips of true-color imagery at local Noon, starting near the dateline and proceeding westward. Recent images are available at this website and include data from 5 geostationary satellites: Himawari, GOES-West, GOES-East, Meteosat-Prime, and Meteosat-IODC. There are multiple other blog posts featuring and explaining the local-noon composite.

Another pyrocumulonimbus cloud spawned by the Calf Canyon Fire in New Mexico

May 14th, 2022 |

GOES-18 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

Preliminary / non-operational GOES-18 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed that the Calf Canyon Fire/Hermits Peak Fire in northern New Mexico produced another another pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) cloud on 14 May 2022 — following 2 previous pyroCb events on 10 May and 01 May. This particular pyroCb first exhibited cloud-top infrared brightness temperature (IR BT) values of -40C and colder (shades of blue in the bottom panel) at 2211 UTC, and later attained IR BTs in the -50s C (shades of red in the bottom panel).

A comparison of Suomi-NPP VIIRS True Color RGB, False Color RGB, Infrared Window and Shortwave Infrared images valid at 2032 UTC is shown below. These VIIRS images were acquired and processed using the Direct Broadcast ground station at SSEC/CIMSS.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS True Color RGB, False Color RGB, Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-18 ABI Imagery Comparisons

May 13th, 2022 |

NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18. GOES-T was launched on March 1, 2022. (see the GOES-T launch as GOES-16 and GOES-17 monitored the rocket signature). GOES-18 is the third (of four) in the GOES-R series and is currently located above the equator at approximately 90W. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 after going through extensive post-launch testing. Also, see this CIMSS Satellite Blog post or this Satellite Liaison Blog post.

GOES-18 Compared to other GOES

Remapped GOES-16, -17 and -18 ABI data from 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

While it is still very early in the post-launch test period, good qualitative agreement has been shown to other GOES imagers, except when comparing to GOES-17 during times it is affected by the Loop Heat Pipe issue. Of course, due to parallax and other reasons, there are expected to be differences, especially at larger view angles. The above loop as a mp4 and animated gif. Or versions that toggle between GOES-18 and GOES-16 only (mp4 and animated gif).

GOES-18 and GOES-16 Band 10 images at 14 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 images of the western United States collected by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the left, while the GOES-16 image is on the right. Note that the data are in the same projection. Warmer brightness temperatures are mapped to warmer colors. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

Remapped GOES-17 and GOES-18 Band 10 images at 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 image of the United States collected by the ABI on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the right, while the GOES-17 image is on the left. This 2-panel “water vapor” image shows overall agreement, with less noise shown on GOES-18 compared with GOES-17. These GOES-18 ABI are early images, calibration improvements are possible. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

3-panel Comparisons (GOES-17, -18, -16)

These 3.9 mircometer band comparisons are thanks to Scott Bachmeier. Direct links for the CA and NM cases of a CIMSS Satellite Blog.

ABI Instrument Response Functions

“Flight Model 3” or GOES-18 ABI Spectral Response Functions for the 10 infrared bands.

The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The instrument response functions can be found both on CIMSS and Calibration Working Group sites.

H/T

Thanks to the many (thousands) who made the GOES-18 ABI possible. These are GOES-18 ABI are early images (preliminary and non-operational, future calibration improvements are possible. geo2grid and McIDAS-X software was used in generating these images. More about GOES-16 and GOES-17.

Satellite-derived instability ahead of widespread severe winds over South Dakota and Minnesota

May 12th, 2022 |
GOES-16 Visible imagery, 1841 – 2356 UTC, 12 May 2022

Storm Reports from SPC for 12 May 2022, (also shown below), show an extraordinary number of severe wind reports over eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota. Visible imagery from the CSPP Geosphere site, above, shows the convective system responsible for the widespread winds lifting northeastward out of Nebraska and moving over the Missouri River Valley.

Storm Prediction Center Storm Reports, 12 May 2022 (click to enlarge)

The animation below shows Clean Window infrared imagery (10.3 µm) overlain on top of Clear-sky only GOES-16 Derived Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE values increase into the mid-2000s (J/Kg) as the convection lifts toward the South Dakota/Minnesota border: abundant instability is present.

GOES-16 Band 13 Infrared Imagery (10.3 µm) and GOES-16 Derived CAPE, 1821 – 2316 UTC on 12 May 2022 (Click to enlarge)

NOAA-20 overflew this area just after 1800 UTC, and the NUCAPS profiles derived from CrIS and ATMS on board that satellite tell a similar story of instability. Gridded fields of the 850-500 mb Lapse Rate, of Total Precipitable Water (TPW) and of the Total Totals Index, below, show a corridor of instability and moisture over extreme southeast South Dakota. Lapse rates are between 8 and 9o C/km, TPW values are near 1.5″, and Total Total Index values exceed 55! Convection moving towards this region and along this axis of instability would not be inhibited by the environment. NUCAPS Sounding Availability points shown in the image below are mostly green: the infrared retrievals converged to a solution.

Gridded Values of 850-500 mb Lapse Rate, Total Precipitable Water, and Total Totals Index, ca. 1830 UTC on 12 May 2022. Also shown: NUCAPS Sounding Availability points (click to enlarge)

What do the individual NUCAPS Profiles look like? Two lines of profiles over eastern Nebraska are shown below. Sounding readout values from NSharp in AWIPS show large MUCAPS values, and a very well-mixed atmosphere.

NUCAPS profiles over eastern Nebraska/southeastern South Dakota, at the points indicated, ca. 1840 UTC on 12 May 2022 (Click to enlarge)
NUCAPS profiles over central Nebraska, at the points indicated, ca. 1840 UTC on 12 May 2022 (Click to enlarge)

AWIPS imagery in this post was created using the NOAA/TOWR-S AWIPS Cloud Instance.

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GOES-18 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with time-matched SPC Storm Reports plotted in red [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-18 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images with time-matched plots of SPC Storm Reports (above) showed the northeastward propagation of the derecho — along with a second Mesoscale Convective System in its wake — as it produced wind gusts as high as 107 mph in South Dakota (at 2125 UTC), hail as large as 2.50 inches in diameter in Nebraska (at 0007 UTC) and several tornadoes. Note that this early GOES-18 imagery is preliminary and non-operational.

The corresponding 1-minute GOES-18 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (below) extend a bit past sunset — and revealed pulsing overshooting tops as cold as -70 to -75ºC (white pixels embedded within areas of black).

GOES-18 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with time-matched SPC Storm Reports plotted in cyan [click to play animated GIF | MP4]