NUCAPS fields across an upper tropospheric front

January 20th, 2021 |

GOES-16 ABI Airmass RGB, Band 10 and Band 8 (7.34 µm and 6.19 µm, respectively), and GOES-16 Airmass RGB overlain with NUCAPS sounding availability plots, 0801 UTC oni 20 January 2021 (click to enlarge)

The AirMass RGB from GOES-16 at 0800 UTC on 20 January 2021 showed a distinct color change across central Missouri, from red to green.  The enhanced red coloring suggests a large difference in water vapor brightness temperatures.  The toggle above (including an image with NUCAPS* sounding points), shows structures in the water vapor imagery consistent with an upper tropospheric front.

Water Vapor and Airmass RGB imagery fields are useful because they be compared to model fields of the tropopause, and similarities in model fields and satellite imagery lend credence to the idea that the model initialization is accurate.  Compare the Airmass RGB and the Rapid Refresh mapping of the pressure on the 1.5 PVU surface below.  There is good spatial correlation between model and satellite fields.

GOES-16 Airmass RGB and Rapid Refresh model field of Pressure on the 1.5 PVU surface, 0800 UTC 20 January 2021 (Click to enlarge)

How do vertical profiles from NUCAPS vary across the tropopause fold?  The animation below shows six different profile in Missouri and Arkansas, spanning the reddish region of the airmass RGB.

GOES-16 Airmass RGB image with selected NUCAPS profiles, as indicated. (Click to enlarge)

A more efficient way to view information from NUCAPS is to view gridded fields.  Polar2Grid is used to transform the vertical profile to horizontal fields at the individual NUCAPS pressure levels (and then vertical interpolation moves those fields to standard levels).  The animations below show gridded values that are all in agreement with the presence of a tropopause fold where the Airmass RGB and model fields suggest.  Gridded temperature and moisture can be combined in many ways.  Gridded Ozone is also available in AWIPS (some of these fields were created using the Product Browser).

Ozone from NUCAPS, below, does show an enhancement, as expected, in the region where the tropopause fold is suggested by the airmass RGB.

NUCAPS-derived ozone anomalies, ca. 0800 UTC on 20 January 2021 (Click to enlarge)

The gridded NUCAPS tropopause level, shown below, can also be inferred from the individual profiles shown above.

Gridded NUCAPS Tropopause level, ca. 0800 UTC on 20 January 2021 (click to enlarge)

Note how the lapse rates show relatively less stable air (in the mid-troposphere) in the region of the tropopause fold.

Gridded 500-700 mb Lapse rates, ca. 0800 UTC on 20 January 2021 (click to enlarge)

Mixing ratio shows dry mid- and upper-tropospheric air, in the region of the tropopause fold, as might be expected from the GOES-16 water vapor imagery.

Gridded NUCAPS esimates of 300-700 mb mixing ratio, ca. 0800 UTC on 20 January 2021 (Click to enlarge)

In general, NUCAPS data can be used to augment other satellite and model data to better understand the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere.  For more information on NUCAPS profiles, refer to this training video.

*The careful reader will note that the timestamp of the NUCAPS Sounding Availability plot, 0753 UTC, is different from the GOES-16 imagery.  Why?  The NUCAPS Sounding Availability plot is timestamped (approximately) when NOAA-20 initially overflies North American airspace.  NOAA-20 was flying over Missouri shortly after 0800 UTC, as shown in this plot (from this website).  Gridded NUCAPS fields are timestamped when NOAA-20 is overhead.

There GOES 2020

January 4th, 2021 |

Daily Full Disk imagery

By animating daily NOAA GOES-16 or GOES-17 ABI Full Disk visible imagery, the year are 2020 can be shown quickly in review. The GOES-16 loops show an 18 UTC image each day of 2020, while GOES-17 shows an image from 21 UTC. The images are Rayleigh-corrected composites. The GOES-16 loop is similar to a loop that includes the Winter Solstice.

Click on the above image for a link to a page with one GOES-16 ABI image for each day of 2020: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/loops/18z_2020_GOES.html.

Other versions as an mp4, from the ABI on GOES-16: small, medium and large. Although it should be noted that all these images are drastically sub-sampled from the higher spatial resolution imagery.

A similar year-long animation, from GOES-17 at 21 UTC daily. This time was chosen for a maximum illumination of the full disk.

Click on the above image for a link to a page with one GOES-17 ABI image for each day of 2020.

Other mp4 versions, as mp4, from the ABI on GOES-17: small and medium.

Daily Regional Views

Year-long, GOES-16 loops at 18 UTC have been generated for other regions, including: the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, Texas and part of the Gulf of Mexico, Central US, Southwest, Northwest and the Midwest. Similar loops from GOES-17 have been generated using images from 21 UTC for both Alaska and Hawaii. These loops begin on January 1, 2020.

Hourly Views of the Midwest

A very large (~800 MB) file, showing a year-long (hourly) GOES-16 file over the Midwest (duration of 14 min) covering 2020. Many features can be seen, including clouds, smoke and snow. Note that this loop is sub-sampled in time by a factor of 12. RGB imagery of the CIMSS (Natural) true color (during the day) and the nighttime cloud microphysics (during the night) are shown.

These images were made with geo2grid s/w, with NOAA GOES data via the UW-Madison, SSEC.

(Northern Hemisphere) Winter solstice

December 21st, 2020 |

By animating daily NOAA GOES-16 ABI Full Disk visible imagery, how the Earth is illuminated over time can be seen. For example, the minimum in incoming solar radiation in the Northern Hemisphere associated with the Winter Solstice. For details, see “What is a Solstice?” by SciJinks. Or this NOAA https://www.noaa.gov/education/news/share-your-solstice-sunset-with-noaa-education post.

A year-long GOES-16 visible Full Disk animation.

A Full Disk visible (band 2) loop at 11 UTC, (9 and 18 sec long versions).

Interactive web pages

A demonstration of the interactive web page that allows one to annotate images, such as drawing lines.

An interactive web page with a years worth of GOES ABI Full Disk visible images at 11 UTC. The beginning date is the (northern hemisphere) winter solstice is 2019 and the end date is the winter solstice in 2020. A user can play the animation, as well as annotate the images. For example, draw lines along the terminator for different times of the year. One example might be to compare a solstice to an equinox. H/T Tom Whittaker, SSEC, for the webapp.

 

Screenshot of a 4-panel webapp image where one can annotate the image with lines along the terminator.
Screen shot of the webapp where one can explore the effect of the angle of incidence on sun’s energy. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)
Explore the changing seasons on Earth by relating the orbit, rotation and solar insolation with this webapp by T. Whittaker. (Click on the image to go to the webapp.)

The Year in Review

A year-long loop from GOES-16 showing the Midwest. Only 18 UTC images are shown.

A year-long Midwest CIMSS (Natural) true color (during the day) and the nighttime cloud microphysics) animation from GOES-16 at 18 UTC. Since this are daytime images, only the true color is being seen. A similar loop as above, but with a duration of 37 sec or 74 sec.

Year-long, GOES-16 loops at 18 UTC have been generated for other regions, including: the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, Texas and part of the Gulf of Mexico, Central US, Southwest, and Northwest. Similar loops from GOES-17 have been generated using images from 21 UTC for both Alaska and Hawaii. Note for the loop over parts of Alaska, the nighttime imagery is evident. These loops begin on the Winter Solstice 2019.

Year-long Hourly Loop over the Midwest

A very large (800 MB) file, showing a year-long (hourly) GOES-16 file over the Midwest (duration of 14 min). The loop is also on YouTube. Many features can be seen, including clouds, smoke and snow. This loop begin on the Winter Solstice 2019.

These images were made with either McIDAS-X or geo2grid, both from UW-Madison, SSEC.

Imagery from the EWS-G1 — U.S. Space Force

November 18th, 2020 |

EWS-G1 (Electro-optical Infrared Weather System Geostationary) is a U.S. Space Force mission. Images are now available on the UW/SSEC geo-browser. Full Disk images are obtained every 30 minutes. An EWS-G1 “quick-guide (pdf)”.

The five spectral bands of the EWS-G1 Imager.

The above animation shows the 5 spectral bands on the EWS-G1 imager. There is one visible band and four infrared bands.

This multi-panel image shows all the 5 bands at one given time (and showing full disk images).

Animation of the visible (band 1) from EWS-G1.
Animation of the EWS-G1 water vapor band (3).
Animation of EWS-G1 band 4, longwave infrared window.

A loop of all five spectral bands.

A day-time visible band animation over Madagascar.
A composite image with EWS-G1, GOES-17 and GOES-16 data. Credit: UW/SSEC Satellite Data Services.

The EWS-G1 was formerly NOAA’s GOES-13. Contact the UW/SSEC Satellite Data Services for information of data access / subscription, if more than the posted near realtime imagery are needed.