Long-lived MCV crossing the United States

May 20th, 2022 |
GOES-16 True-Color imagery (daytime) and Night time Microphysics RGB (nighttime) from 1801 UTC on 18 May 2022 through 2001 UTC on 20 May 2022

A benefit of the CSPP Geosphere site is that long animations can be constructed that don’t include every image. The animation above (link) shows hourly true-color (daytime) and Night Time microphysics RGB (nighttime) from 1801 UTC on 18 May 2022 to 2001 UTC on 20 May 2022. This is achieved after clicking on the date in the upper right corner of the image by adjusting the ‘stride’ to — in this case — every 12th image, and increasing the number of frames viewed. The animation above shows a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) generating over the High Plains late in the day on 18 May and developing into a Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) that persists through late in the day on 20 May 2022 over the mid-Atlantic States. It is unusual for MCVs to persist through the night.

For a MCV to persist, certain environmental conditions must be present. In particular, atmospheric wind shear should be small, and moisture and instability should be greater than normal. In this way, convection can be continually generated to help sustain the cyclonic vortex. The stepped animation below shows 6-h HRRR forecasts (from this website) of Most Unstable Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Total Precipitable Water, and 0-6 km shear, valid at 1800 UTC on 19 May (when the MCV was over central Missouri) and 0600 UTC on 20 May 2022 (when the MCV was over Ohio). The region near the MCV center has small values of shear, and large values of moisture and instability.

6-h forecasts valid at 1800 UTC on 19 May (left) and at 0600 UTC on 20 May (right) of Most Unstable CAPE, Total Precipitable Water, and 0-6 km shear (Click to enlarge)

GOES World

May 18th, 2022 |
GOES-17, -18, -16 (West-to-Central-to-East) CIMSS Natural Color imagery at local noon, 15 May 2022. GOES-18 is Preliminary/Non-Operational (click to enlarge)

The image above (credit to Rick Kohrs from SSEC/CIMSS) shows Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from GOES-17 (West), GOES-18 (Central, Preliminary/Non-Operational), and GOES-16 (East) on 15 May 2022. This “Local Noon CIMSS Natural Color” image is created by blending vertical strips of true-color imagery at local noon, starting in the east and proceeding westward. This was a rare opportunity for the GOES-R Series as GOES-18 was only at the central location (89.5W) for a limited time. A larger (5509×4207) version of this image is also available.

Other CIMSS Blog entries have introduced GOES-18, the latest in the GOES-R series. NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18 (including this 2-min video). GOES-T was launched on 1 March 2022. Currently GOES-18 is “drifting” out west to be near the “West” position. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 (GOES-18 Post Launch Test and Transition Plan) after a thorough post-launch test period.

SSEC/CIMSS scientists (notably Rick Kohrs) create daily imagery that blends vertical strips of true-color imagery at local Noon, starting near the dateline and proceeding westward. Recent images are available at this website and include data from 5 geostationary satellites: Himawari, GOES-West, GOES-East, Meteosat-Prime, and Meteosat-IODC. There are multiple other blog posts featuring and explaining the local-noon composite.

GOES-18 ABI Imagery Comparisons

May 13th, 2022 |

NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18. GOES-T was launched on March 1, 2022. (see the GOES-T launch as GOES-16 and GOES-17 monitored the rocket signature). GOES-18 is the third (of four) in the GOES-R series and is currently located above the equator at approximately 90W. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 after going through extensive post-launch testing. Also, see this CIMSS Satellite Blog post or this Satellite Liaison Blog post.

GOES-18 Compared to other GOES

Remapped GOES-16, -17 and -18 ABI data from 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

While it is still very early in the post-launch test period, good qualitative agreement has been shown to other GOES imagers, except when comparing to GOES-17 during times it is affected by the Loop Heat Pipe issue. Of course, due to parallax and other reasons, there are expected to be differences, especially at larger view angles. The above loop as a mp4 and animated gif. Or versions that toggle between GOES-18 and GOES-16 only (mp4 and animated gif).

GOES-18 and GOES-16 Band 10 images at 14 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 images of the western United States collected by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the left, while the GOES-16 image is on the right. Note that the data are in the same projection. Warmer brightness temperatures are mapped to warmer colors. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

Remapped GOES-17 and GOES-18 Band 10 images at 18 UTC on May 6, 2022.

GOES-18 image of the United States collected by the ABI on May 6, 2022. The GOES-18 ABI band 10 (7.3 micrometers) image is on the right, while the GOES-17 image is on the left. This 2-panel “water vapor” image shows overall agreement, with less noise shown on GOES-18 compared with GOES-17. These GOES-18 ABI are early images, calibration improvements are possible. Time animations (from 12 to 22 UTC) of these 2 panels are available for each band: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 (mp4).

3-panel Comparisons (GOES-17, -18, -16)

These 3.9 mircometer band comparisons are thanks to Scott Bachmeier. Direct links for the CA and NM cases of a CIMSS Satellite Blog.

ABI Instrument Response Functions

“Flight Model 3” or GOES-18 ABI Spectral Response Functions for the 10 infrared bands.

The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The instrument response functions can be found both on CIMSS and Calibration Working Group sites.

H/T

Thanks to the many (thousands) who made the GOES-18 ABI possible. These are GOES-18 ABI are early images (preliminary and non-operational, future calibration improvements are possible. geo2grid and McIDAS-X software was used in generating these images. More about GOES-16 and GOES-17.

Early ABI Images from GOES-18

May 12th, 2022 |

NOAA and NASA recently released the first ABI (Advanced Baseline Imager) imagery from GOES-18 (including this 2-min video). GOES-T was launched on March 1st. In fact, both GOES-16 and GOES-17 monitored the rocket signature. GOES-18 is the third in the GOES-R series and is currently located above approximately 90W. Soon GOES-18 will move to a “near West” position. GOES-18 is slated to become NOAA’s operational GOES-West in early 2023 after going through many tests. Before that, the ABI on GOES-18 will become the operational imager during two GOES-17 Loop Heat Pipe times. Also see this satellite liaison post.

Spectral Loop of 16 bands (from the Full Disk sector)

A true color composite image, along with all 16 spectral bands of the preliminary, non-operational GOES-18 ABI on May 5, 2022.

The above loop as an mp4 and animated gif. The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are also ABI band “fact sheets” in Spanish and French.

Another view of the 16 spectral bands of the ABI, both as an mp4 and animated gif. Or see this loop of the true color imagery during the day and an infrared window at night.

The 16 spectral bands of the ABI on May 5, 2022 at 18 UTC.

The “low-level” water vapor band (10) is very important. A loop showing 2 low’s over North America.

GOES-18 ABI “water vapor” band 10 (7.3 micrometers) loop from May 5 and 6, 2022. (click to play)

Of course the ABI Full Disk sectors also views over much of the disk, including of Hudson Bay with a day snow fog RGB (mp4) and South America (fog and suspended sediment).

Ice and clouds over Hudson Bay from GOES-18 RGB on May 5, 2022. (click to play)
Fog along the west coast of South America on May 5, 2022 as seen by the GOES-18 ABI day snow fog RGB. (click to play)
True color imagery showing the suspended sediment of the South American coast on May 5, 2022. (click to play)
A combined full disk GOES-18 loop over a day (true color and longwave window) from May 6 and 7, 2022.

ABI 16-Panel (CONUS region)

The 16 spectral bands of the (Preliminary/Non-operational) GOES-18 ABI from May 5, 2022. (Click to play)
The 16 spectral bands of the (Preliminary/Non-operational) GOES-18 ABI from May 6, 06 UTC to May 7, 06 UTC. (Click to play)

The ABI has 16 spectral bands, 2 in the visible, 4 in the near-infrared (or “near-visible”) and 10 in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. GOES-18 image covering the contiguous United States collected by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) in 16 spectral bands on May 5, 2022.  This 16-panel image shows the two visible, four near-infrared and 10 infrared channels on the ABI. The visible near-IR bands are gray-colored, while the infrared bands have the warmer brightness temperatures mapped to warmer colors. The different appearance of each band is due to how each band reflects or absorbs radiation. Each spectral band was scanned at approximately the same time, starting at approximately 18 UTC. The above mp4 loop and one of the frames.

Meso-scale sectors

The ABI scans two smaller meso-scale regions every 60 seconds, which provides 30-sec imagery if the regions overlap. These channels help forecasters and others distinguish phenomena such as clouds, water vapor, fires, smoke, dust, ice, land/sea surface temperatures and volcanic ash.

A combined visible and infrared “sandwich” view over Minnesota and Wisconsin early on May 11, 2022. Images every one minute. (Click to play)

Recent meso-scale coverage from the GOES-18 ABI include: Texas, New Mexico and Minnesota (mp4 and animated gif). A similar loop, but just showing the ABI “red” visible band.

1-min meso “sandwich” imagery over Texas on May 5, 2022 as seen by GOES-18 ABI. (click to play)

H/T

Thanks to the many (thousands) who made the GOES-18 ABI possible. These GOES-18 ABI are early images (preliminary and non-operational, calibration improvements are possible. Both McIDAS-X and geo2grid software was used in generating these images. More about GOES-16 and GOES-17.