Typhoon Hagibis south of Japan

October 11th, 2019 |

Himawari-8 Clean Window Infrared (10.41 µm) imagery every 2.5 minutes, from 1429 UTC to 1932 UTC on 11 October 2019. Imagery courtesy JMA (Click to animate)

Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imagery (AHI) from the ‘Target’ sector, above, show a strong albeit asymmetric storm south of Ise Bay and southwest of Tokyo Bay. Clean window infrared (10.41 µm) imagery, above, shows a compact eye that is cooling with time, suggesting weakening (and/or becoming more cloud-filled). Most of the cold clouds in the storm are north of the center, a distribution that suggests shear.  However, the storm is still producing strong convection that is wrapping around the eye. By the end of the animation, at 1929 UTC, the eye is no longer distinct.  This toggle compares the 1432 and 1929 UTC images.  A decrease in storm cloud-top organization near the eye is apparent.

Data from the CIMSS Tropical Page at 1530 UTC on 11 October, shown below in a stepped animation, show southerly shear that will increase with time over the storm as it moves towards Japan. Microwave imagery (85 GHz) also suggest a sheared storm, as does the infrared imagery.  Low-level water vapor imagery (7.3 µm), here), shows dry air (yellows in the color enhancement chosen) prevalent over the southern half of the storm.  These data suggest that a slow extratropical transition is underway.

Past and Predicted path of Hagibis, Observed Shear at 1500 UTC, the latest 85 GHz image over the storm, and Infrared window imagery at 1530 UTC. (Click to enlarge) All imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Page.

The Airmass RGB image over the Pacific Basin, (animation), (from this site at CIRA) also shows dry air consistent with a transition from tropical to extratropical. The zoomed-in image of the Airmass RGB, below, from Real Earth, shows the dry air as shades or orange/copper southwest of the storm, in contrast to the deep tropical moisture, feeding into the storm from the south, that is greener.

Airmass RGB from Himawari-8 Data, 1630 UTC on 11 October 2019

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center has the latest on Hagibis. A projected path valid at 1500 UTC 11 October is here.

Suomi NPP overflew Hagibis at 1639 UTC on 11 October. The toggle below shows the Day Night Band (0.7 µm Visible imagery) and the 11.45 µm infrared imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Instrument.  A larger-scale view of the Day Night Band is here.  (Imagery courtesy William Straka, CIMSS)

Suomi NPP Day Night Band Visible Imagery (0.7 µm) and Window Infrared (11.45 µm) from VIIRS, 1638 UTC on 11 October 2019 (Click to enlarge)

Super Typhoon Hagibis in the West Pacific Ocean

October 7th, 2019 |

Himawari-i8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

JMA Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed the pinhole eye of Super Typhoon Hagibis as it rapidly intensified to a Category 5 storm (ADT | SATCON) by 12 UTC on 07 October 2019. Hagibis exhibited some trochoidal motion and variations in forward speed as it approached the Northern Mariana Islands, eventually moving just south of the small uninhabited island of Anatahan (north of Saipan, station identifier PGSN) around 15 UTC.

A toggle between VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (below) showed the eye just west of Anatahan.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

During the period 06 October/2014 UTC to 07 October/0714 UTC, Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) showed the initial period of rapid intensification, during which Hagibis developed a well-defined pinhole eye.

Himawari-8 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Hagibis was moving over warm West Pacific water with high values of Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content — the storm was also moving through an environment characterized by low deep-layer wind shear.

===== 08 October Update =====

Himawari-8 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute rapid scan Himawari-8 Infrared images (above) showed Hagibis during an eyewall replacement cycle (erosion of the small inner eye, with the subsequent formation of a larger-diameter eye). The small inner eyewall could be seen rotating within the larger eye as this transition was taking place. Once the eyewall replacement cycle was completed, Hagibis re-intensified to a Category 5 storm at 18 UTC.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (below) displayed the eye and eyewall region of the Category 4 storm.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

A toggle between VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1556 UTC (below) provided a nighttime view of Hagibis.

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm ) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1556 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1556 UTC (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

Satellite views of a Spacecraft Freighter Launch from Tanegashima Island in Japan

September 24th, 2019 |

NOAA-20 Day Night Band visible (0.7 µm) imagery at 1602 UTC on 24 September 2019 (Click to enlarge) (Image courtesy Mike Ziobro and Brandon Aydlett, WFO Guam)

NOAA-20 has viewed the launch from Tanegashima Island of a Japanese Spacecraft (NASA Blog Coverage; YouTube video, launch is at minute 35 in the video). Brandon Aydlett, NWS Guam, noted the appearance of a very bright spot in the Day Night Band imagery from NOAA-20 at 1602 UTC on 24 September (and a hot spot as well in the infrared imagery shown below). (NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP data in this blog post were downloaded at the Direct Broadcast Antenna at the Forecast Office in Guam). NOAA-20 Orbital passes (from this site) show an overpass near the island at 1605 UTC; Suomi NPP had a more direct overpass over the island around 1657 UTC. Compare the NOAA-20 image, above, timestamped 1602 UTC, to the Suomi NPP image, below, timestamped at 1654 UTC. The bright signal over Tanegashima at 1602 UTC is missing from the 1654 UTC Suomi NPP imagery.

Suomi-NPP Day Night Band visible imagery (0.7 µm) at 1654 UTC on 24 September 2019 (Click to enlarge) (Image courtesy Mike Ziobro and Brandon Aydlett, WFO Guam)

Infrared Imagery captured the thermal signature of this launch as well. The hot spots in VIIRS imagery are obvious at 1602 UTC from NOAA-20, but not at 1654 UTC from Suomi NPP, at both 3.74 and 11.45, as shown below.

VIIRS shortwave infrared (3.74 µm) imagery at 1654 UTC (left) and at 1602 UTC (center, right, with two different color enhancements). Blown-up versions of the warm pixels are shown (Click to enlarge) (Image courtesy Mike Ziobro and Brandon Aydlett, WFO Guam)

VIIRS infrared (11.45 µm) imagery at 1654 UTC (left) and at 1602 UTC (right, same color enhancements). Blown-up versions of the warm pixels are shown (Click to enlarge) (Image courtesy Mike Ziobro and Brandon Aydlett, WFO Guam)

 

Himawari-8 shortwave infrared imagery also captured the launch, with a hot spot in a Japan Sector image at 1605 UTC on 24 September 2019, below.

Himawari-8 shortwave infrared (3.9 µm) imagery from 1600-1610 UTC on 24 September 2019 (Click to enlarge). Himawari data courtesy of JMA.

There is a considerable parallax shift in the NOAA-20 imagery, as the VIIRS instrument is scanning at the limb in the image, and the rocket at the time was very high in the atmosphere. The parallax shift in the Himawari-8 imagery is less noticeable.

Typhoon Faxai makes landfall in Japan

September 8th, 2019 |


2.5-minute rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images centered on Tokyo (with plots of hourly wind gusts) are shown below — wind gusts included 90 knots (167 km/h) at New Tokyo International Airport (RJAA) and 85 knots (157 km/h) at Tokyo International Airport (RJTT).

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm), with hourly wind gusts (in knots) plotted in yellow [click to play animation | MP4]