GOES-17 arrives at its GOES-West position of 137.2º W longitude

November 15th, 2018 |
Full Disk images of the 16 ABI bands from GOES-17 [click to play MP4 animation]

1500 UTC Full Disk images of the 16 ABI bands from GOES-17 [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-17 images posted here are preliminary and non-operational *

GOES-17 arrived at its GOES-West position of 137.2º W longitude on 13 November 2018, and began to transmit imagery via GOES Re-Broadcast (GRB) at 1500 UTC and the AWIPS Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) at 1700 UTC on 15 November (NOAA/NESDIS article). A toggle between Full Disk images of the 16 ABI spectral bands from GOES-17 at 1500 UTC is shown above, with a 16-panel multi-band animation from 1515-2300 UTC shown below..

Full Disk images from the 16 ABI bands of GOES-17 [click to play MP4 animation]

Full Disk images from the 16 ABI bands of GOES-17 [click to play MP4 animation]

Full Disk GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images  are shown below.

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

The improved spatial resolution of GOES-17 (vs GOES-15) was very obvious at higher latitudes — a closer look at GOES-17 Water Vapor imagery (below) showed good detail associated with areas of low pressure in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. Note that signatures of the higher terrain of mountain ranges across south-central and southeastern Alaska could be seen on the 7.3 µm and to a lesser extent the 6.9 µm images.

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation | MP4]

After sunrise, GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) provided a compelling view of the snow-covered Alaska Range (which includes Denali at 20,320 feet / 6,194 meters), the Wrangell Mountains (which includes Mt. Wrangell at 14,163 feet / 4,317 meters) and the Chugach Mountains (which includes Mount Marcus Baker, 13,176 feet / 4,016 meters). In particular, note the long shadows cast by Denali and the Alaska Range in the upper left portion of the images.

GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

For a short time a GOES-17 Mesoscale Domain Sector was positioned over Hawai’i, providing images at 1-minute intervals (below).

GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface observations [click to play animation | MP4]

Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands could be seen on the far western limb of Full Disk GOES-17 images (below). A few isolated tropical thunderstorms could be seen developing and collapsing in the vicinity of the islands.

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface observations [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface observations [click to play animation | MP4]

A portion of West Antarctica could be seen on the far southern limb of GOES-17 Full Disk images, along with a storm system in the South Pacific Ocean (below). Through gaps in the clouds, the northern edge of the Antarctic sea ice (source) was also evident in the Visible imagery.

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Over the Lower 48 states, AWIPS images of 1-minute GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) data (below) showed the smoke and thermal anomaly (darker red pixels near the center of the images) associated with the ongoing Camp Fire in northern California.

GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Farther to the south in central California, a comparison of 1-minute Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-16 (GOES-East) and GOES-17 revealed differences in the size and orientation of hot pixels of the Adler/Mountaineer/Moses Fires burning northeast of Porterville KPTV  in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. These differences were due to the view angle from the 2 satellites — 62 degrees from GOES-16 over the Atlantic Ocean, vs. only 41 degrees from GOES-17 over the Pacific Ocean. There was a navigational jump with GOES-17 from 1831-1837 UTC, so those images were removed from the animation.

GOES-16 vs GOES-17 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 vs GOES-17 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Hurricane Willa

October 22nd, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed Willa during the 48 hours that it rapidly intensified (ADT | SATCON) from a Tropical Storm at 15 UTC on 20 October to a Category 5 Hurricane at 15 UTC on 22 October 2018. Willa  — which became the third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 season in the northeast Pacific basin (east of 180º longitude) — formed and had been moving over very warm water, with Sea Surface Temperatures of 29-30ºC. Deep-layer wind shear was also light during the 15 hour period lead up to Category 5 intensity.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (below; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed Category 4 Willa off the west coast of Mexico at 0852 UTC on 22 October. The Moon was in the Waxing Gibbous phase (at 95% of Full), providing ample illumination for a “visible image at night” using the VIIRS Day/Night Band. Intricate cloud-top gravity waves were seen propagating radially outward from the storm center.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window images (below) revealed the small eye of the Category 5 hurricane after sunrise, with multiple convective bursts that erupted along the western edge of the eyewall. A continuous series of storm-top waves could be seen propagating radially outward away from the eye on Visible imagery. However, the eye eventually became cloud-filled as Willa began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle — the formation of a larger-diameter outer eyewall was evident on the MIMIC-TC product — and weaken to a Category 4 intensity.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational *

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) provided a more direct view of the storm, since the satellite was positioned over the Equator at 89.5º W longitude while in its post-launch testing location.

GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

October 23 is the last full day, for a while, to use GOES-16 and GOES-17 data to produce stereoscopic imagery. GOES-17 is set to cease data transmission on 24 October around 1500 UTC as it starts its motion towards its operational GOES-West position of 137.2º W Longitude. The animation below, starting at 1307 UTC on 23 October, (click here for an animated gif) shows the occasional appearance of an eye within the storm center on 23 October as it approached the coast. To view the image in three dimensions, cross your eyes until 3 images are apparent, then focus on the image in the middle.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

“Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from GOES-16 (right) and GOES-17 (left) [click to play mp4 animation]

Blowing dust along the southwest coast of Greenland

October 14th, 2018 |

As noted by Santiago Gassó, a long and very narrow plume of airborne dust was evident just off the southwest coast of Greenland on 14 October 2018. Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images as viewed using RealEarth are shown below. An exposed (free of snow cover) glacial outlet between Qeqertarsuatsiaat and Paamiut was the point source of the dust plume — the change in water colors (shades of cyan) highlighted the offshore flow of meltwater from this glacier into the Labrador Sea, which then began to curve northward within the West Greenland Current. The strong pressure gradient between high pressure over southern Greenland and a low pressure southeast of the island (surface analyses) along with a passing trough axis caused brisk northerly winds, which lofted the aerosols into the boundary layer.

Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

The plume of aerosols was also apparent on GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (below). The appearance of the plume on 1.61 µm imagery was due to the bright color of the “glacial flour” particles, which were efficient reflectors of incoming solar radiation — this brighter signature showed up well against the dark appearance of the water (which strongly absorbs radiation at the 1.61 µm wavelength).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

The plume of airborne dust was also seen on GOES-17 Visible and Near-Infrared images (below), although the viewing angle was less favorable than from GOES-16.

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational *

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Near-Infrared "Snow/Ice" (1.61 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Unfortunately, there were no surface observations in the vicinity of the plume source to indicate how strong the surface winds were blowing; the closest active reporting sites along the southwest coast of Greenland were Godthaab/Nuuk to the distant north and Narsarsuaq to the distant south (large-scale Near-Infrared image). However, Metop-B ASCAT winds (source) just offshore of the plume origin area were in the 30-40 knots range around 1440 UTC (below).

Metop-B ASCAT surface scatterometer winds [click to enlarge]

Metop-B ASCAT surface scatterometer winds [click to enlarge]

Category 4 Hurricane Michael makes landfall along the Florida coast

October 10th, 2018 |

Sequence of Infrared Window images from Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) [click to enlarge]

Infrared Window images from Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) [click to enlarge]

A sequence of Infrared Window images from Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (above) showed Category 4 Hurricane Michael as it was making its approach toward the Florida coast during the nighttime hours preceding sunrise on 10 October 2018. The yellow pixels east of the eye on the 0724 UTC VIIRS image highlighted cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of -90ºC and colder (with a minimum of -92ºC).

Toggles between VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (below; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) revealed convectively-generated mesospheric airglow waves propagating away from the hurricane.

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Overlapping GOES-16 (GOES-East) Mesoscale Domain Sectors provided 30-second interval  “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images of Michael after sunrise (below).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Closer views of GOES-16 Visible and Infrared images (below) showed Hurricane Michael making landfall around 1730-1745 UTC near Mexico Beach, Florida as a high-end Category 4 storm with maximum sustained winds of 135 knots (155 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 919 hPa (27.41 inches). During the 24-hour period prior to landfall, Michael had been moving over water having moderate Ocean Heat Content and warm Sea Surface Temperatures; and as had been the case during much of Michael’s time as a hurricane, in spite of the fact that deep-layer wind shear was somewhat unfavorable (09 October | 10 October landfall), the storm was still able to maintain a trend of intensification (ADT | SATCON). Additional information regarding the landfall of Michael (and its historical significance) is available here.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Groups — aggregates of individual lightning Events — are plotted on 30-second GOES-16 Visible images (below). The red symbols denote lightning Groups within the 1-minute period immediately preceding the Visible image time, with the yellow symbols being Groups for the 1-minute time period before that. The native GLM parallax correction is turned off — so the lightning locations correspond to where the satellite viewed the lightning signatures at the tops of the clouds.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with GLM lightning Groups plotted in red and yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

As pointed out on Twitter by the SOO at NWS Nashville, GOES-16 Visible imagery (below) revealed the bright white sandy beaches of Saint Andrew Sound (Google Maps) as the eye of Michael passed overhead. Surface observations from Panama City (KECP), Tyndall AFB (KPAM) and Apalachicola (KAAF) are plotted on the images — all 3 sites stopped reporting after landfall, presumably due to power outages (the peak wind gust at Tyndall AFB was 129 mph). A longer animation (from 1300-1959 UTC) of 30-second GOES-16 Visible images is available here (courtesy of Pete Pokrandt, UW-AOS).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with surface observations and with/without a map overlay [click to play animation | MP4]

The signature of the beaches was also evident on GOES-17 Visible imagery (below) —  but since that satellite was scanning at the standard 5-minute interval, they were only seen on 2 consecutive images. Note that GOES-17 imagery shown here  is preliminary and non-operational.

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with surface observations and with/without a map overlay [click to enlarge]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with surface observations and with/without a map overlay [click to enlarge]

One item of local curiosity that was observed on GOES-16 Visible imagery: a darker shadow-like feature within the eye, which slowly migrated from the northern to the western portion during the 1613-1642 UTC period (1625 UTC still image | MP4 animation). Closer inspection of the GOES-16 ABI Near-Infrared and Infrared spectral bands (below) indicated that this was indeed a cloud shadow, from a cirrus filament that became detached from the southeastern edge of the eyewall and then rotated cyclonically within the eye to cast a shadow against the brightly-illuminated quasi-vertical edges of the eyewall.

16-panel images of all GOES-16 ABI spectral bands [click to play animation | MP4]

All 16 spectral bands of the GOES-16 ABI [click to play animation | MP4]

A sequence of Infrared Window images from Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (below) provided a high-resolution view of the cold cloud tops associated with Michael during and shortly after landfall.

Infrared Window images from Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) [click to enlarge]

Infrared Window images from Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and NOAA-20/Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) [click to enlarge]

On a larger scale, GOES-16 mid/upper-level Derived Motion Winds from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) revealed the development of a well-defined outflow channel to the north of the storm, especially during the 12 hours prior to landfall — this enhanced poleward outflow (aided by the approach of an upper-level trough from the central US) may have been a contributing factor in Michael’s continued intensification leading up to landfall.

GOES-16 Mid/Upper-level winds, 21 UTC on 09 October to 21 UTC on 10 October [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) Water Vapor images with Mid/Upper-level winds, from 21 UTC on 09 October to 21 UTC on 10 October [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm) and Water Vapor (6.7 µm) images (below) showed that clouds and moisture were being transported by this outflow channel as far northward as the Ohio River Valley shortly after the time of landfall.

Aqua MODIS Near-Infrared

Aqua MODIS Near-Infrared “Cirrus” (1.37 µm) and Water Vapor (6.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A GOES-16 Red-Green-Blue (RGB) animation (below; courtesy of Rick Kohrs, SSEC) showed the landfall of Michael.

GOES-16 RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 RGB images [click to play MP4 animation]

A stereoscopic animation using GOES-16 and GOES-17 Visible imagery is provided below; to view the animation in 3-D, cross your eyes until 3 images appear — then focus on the image in the middle. Note that GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational.

“Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) [click to play animation]

===== 11 October Update =====

Aqua MODIS True Color RGB images from 06 October and 11 October [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True Color RGB images from 06 October and 11 October [click to enlarge]

A before/after comparison of Aqua MODIS True Color RGB images (source) from 06 October and 11 October (above) showed a dramatic increase in turbidity of the water off the “Emerald Coast” portion of the Florida Panhandle — this turbidity was the result of turbulent mixing of the relatively shallow continental shelf water by the strong winds of the hurricane. The close-up images above are centered off the coast near the landfall location; the large-scale images below show more of the Gulf Coast, from Texas to the Florida Peninsula.

Aqua MODIS True Color RGB images from 06 October and 11 October [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True Color RGB images from 06 October and 11 October [click to enlarge]

Hourly images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product during the 5-day period from 07-11 October (below) showed the transport of tropical moisture from the Caribbean Sea across the Gulf of Mexico and over the southeastern US — heavy rainfall and flooding occurred from Florida and Alabama to the Mid-Atlantic states (WPC summary).

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water images, 07-11 October [click to play animation | MP4]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water images, 07-11 October [click to play animation | MP4]

The entire life cycle of Michael can be viewed in a compilation of GOES-16 Infrared 1-minute (or 30-second, when available) Mesoscale Sector images from 07-11 October, available here  — with a zoomed-in version of the images from 08-11 October available here or on YouTube (courtesy of Pete Pokandt, UW-AOS).

===== 18 October Update =====

Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from 04 October and 18 October [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from 04 October and 18 October [click to enlarge]

A comparison of before/after Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from 04 October and 18 October (above) revealed a broad swath of damaged/dead vegetation (lighter shades of brown) along the path of strongest winds associated with the eyewall of Hurricane Michael.

Larger-scale versions of those same before/after Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from the SSEC MODIS Direct Broadcast site (below) showed that the path of damaged vegetation extended far northeastward across Georgia — Michael was still at Category 3 intensity when its center moved into the southwestern corner of the state.

Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from 04 October and 18 October [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS True Color RGB images from 04 October and 18 October [click to enlarge]

A before/after comparison of Terra MODIS False Color RGB images (using Bands 7-2-1) from 04 October and 12 October (below) showed the area rivers that were in varying stages of flooding (darker shades of blue) following the heavy rainfall from Michael (the total precipitation was 8 inches above normal or 600% of normal for the 14-day period of 04-18 October). Most obvious was the Chipola River, which was at Moderate flood stage on 14 October.

Terra MODIS False Color RGB images from 04 October and 12 October [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS False Color RGB images from 04 October and 12 October [click to enlarge]