GOES-16 is no longer transmitting ABI data

November 30th, 2017 |

16-panel image of all GOES-16 ABI Bands, 1332 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

In preparation for its move from 89.5º W Longitude to the operational GOES-East position at 75.2º W Longitude, GOES-16 Instruments — the ABI, the GLM, and others — have been placed in ‘safe mode.’  In that mode, the instruments do not scan or transmit data.  This occurred shortly after the 1330 UTC Full Disk image, and the 1332 CONUS Image, shown above.  GOES-16 instrumentation will start scanning and transmitting again, sometime between 14 and 20 December.  In contrast to earlier GOES Satellites, GOES-R series satellites will not transmit data when they are shifting longitude.

Other examples of the final preliminary, non-operational GOES-16 ABI images are shown below: (1) Visible (0.64 µm) imagery centered over snow-covered Mount Washington, New Hampshire, (2) Full Disk Water Vapor (6.9 µm) imagery and (3) a closer view of Water Vapor (7.3 µm, 6.9 µm and 6.2 µm) images showing mountain waves over Wyoming and Colorado.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, centered on Mount Washington, New Hampshire (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) images, centered on Mount Washington, New Hampshire [click to animate]

GOES-16 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images [click to animate]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images [click to animate]

Prescribed burn in Wisconsin

November 28th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above; also available as an animated GIF) showed signatures associated with a prescribed burn in western Wisconsin on 28 November 2017. The Shortwave Infrared images revealed a warm thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (dark black to yellow to red pixels) — and on the visible images, a thin smoke plume could be seen drifting southeastward from the fire source.

Early in the animation sequence, however, a band of cirrus cloud was moving over the fire — yet a faint thermal signature (darker gray to black pixels) could occasionally be seen on the Shortwave Infrared imagery. The cirrus cloud layer was thin enough to allow some of the heat energy emitted by the fire to pass through and reach the satellite detectors. Once the cirrus moved to the south, the fire’s hot spot became much more apparent.

A toggle between Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images at 1812 UTC (below) also showed a faint warm fire signature through the cirrus clouds — the cloud-top Infrared Window brightness temperature directly over the fire in northern Monroe County was -33ºC, while the warmest Shortwave Infrared brightness temperature of the subtle fire signature was +1ºC.

Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.0 µm) images [click to enlarge]

As was seen on the GOES-16 imagery, after the band of cirrus moved south of the fire an Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) image at 1912 UTC (below) displayed a pronounced fire hot spot signature.

Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) image [click to enlarge]

(Thanks to Dave Schmidt, NWS La Crosse, for bringing this case to our attention!)

Lee-side cold frontal gravity wave

November 28th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *

As a strong cold front (surface analyses) moved southward from Colorado and Nebraska across New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma on 28 November 2017, the subtle curved arc signature of a lee-side cold frontal gravity wave could be seen on GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (above).

Closer views of imagery from each of the 3 water vapor bands are shown below.

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Upper-level (6.2 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Mid-level (6.9 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Lower-level (7.3 µm) images, with hourly surface wind barbs plotted in yellow [click to play MP4 animation]

Eruptions of Popocatépetl in Mexico

November 23rd, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10. µm, right) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with plots of hourly surface reports [click to play animation]

* GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing *

An eruption of Mexico’s Popocatépetl volcano — the largest since 2013 — occurred on 23 November 2017. The volcanic cloud was evident in GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) as it drifted southward. However, due to the relatively thin nature of the cloud (a result of low values of ash loading), 10.3 µm infrared brightness temperatures were quite warm (greater than -20ºC), making a height determination from the single-band infrared imagery alone rather difficult.

This example demonstrates the value of using multi-spectral image techniques to derive retrieved products — available from the NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site — such as Ash Height (below). In this case, the retrieved ash cloud height was 7 km or 24,000 feet (darker green enhancement0, even for portions of the cloud with relatively low ash loading.

Ash Cloud Height product [click to play animation]

Ash Cloud Height product [click to play animation]

During the following nighttime hours, another eruption occurred, this time sending ash to a slightly higher altitude of 8 km or 26,000 feet (below).

Ash Cloud Height product [click to play animation]

Ash Cloud Height product [click to play animation]

A GOES-16 GeoColor animation can be seen here.

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Two of the channels on GOES-16 detect radiation in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum where sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbs radiation: Band 10 (7.3 µm, the low-level Water Vapor channel) and Band 11 (8.4 µm, the Infrared Cloud Phase channel, see in particular the figure on the first page of the Quick Guide). The SO2 Red-Green-Blue (RGB) Composite was designed to highlight volcanic plumes, using the Brightness Temperature Difference between the mid-level and low-level Water Vapor Channels (6.9 µm7.3 µm) as the Red Component, the Brightness Temperature Difference between the Clean Infrared Window (Band 13, 10.3 µm) and the Infrared Cloud Phase (Band 11, 8.4 µm) as the Green Component, and the Clean Infrared Window (Band 13, 10.3 µm) as the Blue Component.  The eruption is obvious in the SO2 RGB imagery, below, with magenta and blue values apparent.  The volcanic plume’s appearance differs markedly from that of the convection along the Pacific coast of Mexico south and west of the eruption.

GOES-16 SO2 RGB, 2023 UTC 23 November 2017 – 2148 UTC 23 November 2017 (Click to animate)