GOES-16 Resolution in southern Canada with AWIPS

March 3rd, 2017 |

AWIPS Displays of GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) imagery at 1511 UTC (CONUS) and 1510 UTC (Full Disk) (Click to enlarge)

Note: GOES-16 data shown on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing on-orbit testing.

GOES-16 data that flow into AWIPS for Full Disk display are not at Full Resolution; rather, they are degraded to approximately 6-km resolution. The northern boundary of the GOES-16 ‘CONUS’ domain (GOES-16 data do flow into AWIPS at full resolution for this domain) is very close to the US-Canada border (as shown in this animation of all 16 bands from this blog post, and also in the animation above). When zoomed out, there is little apparent difference in the two images. If you zoom in, however, as shown below with Band 2 (0.64 µm) imagery, the seam between the two resolutions is very noticeable.

GOES-16 Visible Imagery, 1925 UTC, over southern Canada and northern Minnesota/North Dakota (Click to enlarge)

The change in resolution occurs for all bands. The 10.3 µm imagery, below, shows the change north of Montana, Idaho and Washington.

ABI Band 13 (10.3 µm) Imagery at 1510 UTC in the AWIPS CONUS domain (full resolution) and in the AWIPS Full Disk Domain (reduced resolution). (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Data are flowing into AWIPS

March 2nd, 2017 |

All 16 GOES-16 ABI Bands as displayed in AWIPS [click to enlarge]

All 16 GOES-16 ABI Bands as displayed in AWIPS [click to enlarge]

Note: GOES-16 data shown on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing on-orbit testing.

GOES-16 Data started flowing into the National Weather Service’s AWIPS system via NOAAPORT at 1800 UTC on 2 March 2017. At present, all 16 bands from the ABI, as well as select band differences and RGB products, are available. The animation above shows the 16 bands (Click here for a faster animation) in the GOES-16 CONUS Sector displayed over the predefined AWIPS CONUS Domain. Two RGBs (Red-Green-Blue Composites) are shown below: The ‘Icing’ RGB and the Daytime Composite are shown. The Icing RGB makes use of the Snow/Ice Channel from GOES-16, at 1.61 µm, that is in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum where ice strongly absorbs radiation. Thus regions including ice appear red or violet.

Icing and Daytime Composite RGBs [click to enlarge]

Icing and Daytime Composite RGBs [click to enlarge]

The predefined AWIPS CONUS domain and the GOES-R CONUS Sector do not overlap. The toggle below shows GOES-R CONUS Sector data displayed on a Full Disk Image, along with the same image over the AWIPS CONUS domain. The southern and eastern parts of the GOES-R CONUS Domain do not show up in the pre-defined AWIPS CONUS domain. Note also that the GOES-16 CONUS Domain does not extend very far northward from the US-Canada border. Forecast Offices over the northern United States will have to rely on Full Disk imagery (at 6-km resolution in AWIPS) when looking into Canada for features slipping southward in northwest flow.

GOES-16 CONUS Domain Band 3 (0.86 µm) displayed on Hemispheric Projection and on the regular AWIPS CONUS Projection [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 CONUS Domain Band 3 (0.86 µm) displayed on Hemispheric Projection and on the regular AWIPS CONUS Projection [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sector for American Samoa

December 15th, 2015 |

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

On 15 December 2015 NOAA/NESDIS conducted a test of the new GOES-15 (GOES-West) Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sector for coverage of the American Samoa region (SSD message). GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm, 1-km resolution) images during the test period between 1711 and 1957 UTC are shown above, with plots of surface observations for Pago Pago (station identifier NSTU) and Faleolo (station identifier NSFA). Note that visible images from the Full Disk scan at 1800 UTC and Southern Hemisphere sectors at :22 past each hour are also included in the animation; during routine operations, there are periods when only 1 image per hour is available (from the Southern Hemisphere sector) which covers American Samoa.

The full size of the American Samoa RSO sector is shown below.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) image showing the size of the American Samoa RSO sector [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) image showing the size of the American Samoa RSO sector [click to enlarge]

Displayed below is the American Samoa RSO sector is relation to the typical GOES-West Full Disk scan coverage.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) image showing the location of the American Samoa RSO sector in relation to the GOES-15 Full Disk scan coverage [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) image showing the location of the American Samoa RSO sector in relation to the GOES-15 Full Disk scan coverage [click to enlarge]

The American Samoa RSO sector images were also successfully broadcast over the Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN) for display in AWIPS II; a sample GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm, 4-km resolution) image is shown below.

GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) image, displayed using AWIPS II [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) image, displayed using AWIPS II [click to enlarge]

As a preview to the upcoming GOES-R series of satellites, we can examine JMA Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm, 0.5 km resolution) images for the same 3-hour time period, as seen below (sun glint over the open water is high during this time of day, due to the sun-satellite geometry of Himiwari-8 positioned at 140º East longitude). The images are available from the AHI instrument every 10 minutes, and show the development of organized clusters of convection just north and south of the larger islands of Samoa and Apia. Remote locations such as American Samoa will receive similar images every 5 minutes from the ABI instrument on GOES-R/S/T.

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation]

The nighttime glow of Hawaii’s Kilauwea volcano

April 28th, 2015 |
Himawari-8 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)

Himawari-8 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)

The Kilauwea Volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i began erupting in March 2008 (blog post | USGS reference), and has been in a nearly continuous phase of activity since then. During the pre-dawn hours of 28 April 2015, thermal signatures of the Kilauwea summit lava lake and nearby lava flows could be seen on McIDAS-V images of 10-minute interval Himawari-8 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (above; click image to play animation). The dark black pixels represent the hottest IR brightness temperatures.

On the corresponding Himawari-8 2.3 µm near-IR channel images (below; click image to play animation), the clusters of bright white pixels represent the glow of the hot lava features.

Himawari-8 2.3 µm near-IR channel images (click to play animation)

Himawari-8 2.3 µm near-IR channel images (click to play animation)

A different view is provided by the polar-orbiting Suomi NPP satellite — a comparison of AWIPS II images of VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR data (below) revealed the locations of the hottest lava features (black to yellow to red color enhancement) at 11:40 UTC (1:40 am local time).

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR images

A longer animation using GOES-15 (GOES-West) 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (below; click image to play animation) showed considerable temporal fluctuation in the location and intensity of the hot lava pixels (black to yellow to red color enhancement). For the latest information on the Kilauea eruption, visit the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

GOES-15 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)

GOES-15 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)