Cyclone Damien makes landfall in Western Australia

February 8th, 2020 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed Cyclone Damien making landfall as a Category 2 storm in Western Australia on 08 February 2020. Well west of the storm center, winds gusted to 49 knots at Barrow Island (YBWX). The eye remained intact for several hours after Damien moved inland.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed the eye at 1710 UTC.

GCOM-W2 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W2 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

Just prior to landfall. cloud-top gravity waves were evident in VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP, as viewed using RealEarth (below).

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP [click to enlarge]


Tropical Storm Damien was also seen in the first-light image from Russia’s Elecro-L3 satellite, a few hours before Damien reached Category 1 hurricane intensity.

Typhoon Kammuri makes landfall in the Philippines

December 2nd, 2019 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images (above) showed Typhoon Kammuri as it made landfall in the Philippines around 1500 UTC on 02 December 2019. Kammuri rapidly intensified from a Category 2 to a Category 4 storm (ADT | SATCON) shortly before landfall — it had been moving over very warm water (Sea Surface Temperature | Ocean Heat Content) in the Philippine Sea.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC viewed using RealEarth (below) depicted Kammuri 2-3 hours after landfall.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) imagery at 1725 UTC (below) revealed a large eye and nearly circular eyewall.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS imagery and NUCAPS profiles near the North Pole

August 22nd, 2019 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A sequence of 4 consecutive Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.4 µm) images (above) showed a small swirl of clouds associated with a weak area of low pressure near the North Pole — north of Greenland (surface analyses) — on 22 August 2019.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of NUCAPS availability [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) images, with plots of NUCAPS availability [click to enlarge]

There were Suomi NPP NUCAPS soundings available in the vicinity of the surface low (above) — profiles from the 4 squared green dot locations (green dots indicate successful sounding retrievals from both the CrIS and ATMS instruments) which were closest to both the surface low and the North Pole (below) revealed characteristically-low arctic tropopause heights of around 7-8 km, and surface temperatures dropping to below freezing at the 2 most northerly points of 88.28º and 88.57º N latitude. Note: the Suomi NPP (SNPP) CrIS anomaly that began on 24 March 2019 was resolved via a switch to the redundant Side-2 electronics on 24 June — so CrIS data once again became available for incorporation into SNPP NUCAPS soundings beginning on 01 August. Training material for NUCAPS in AWIPS is available here.

NUCAPS temperature (red) and dew point (green) profiles [click to enlarge]

NUCAPS temperature (red) and dew point (green) profiles [click to enlarge]

According to GCOM-W1 AMSR2 data (source), this weak surface low was over a portion of the Arctic Ocean where sea ice concentration was still high (below).

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 sea ice concentration [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 sea ice concentration [click to enlarge]

Cyclone Kenneth makes landfall in Mozambique

April 25th, 2019 |

Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images (above) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (below) showed Category 4 Cyclone Kenneth (12 UTC JTWC advisory) making landfall along the northeast coast of Mozambique (north of Pemba FQPB: surface observations) on 25 April 2019. Kenneth had been moving over warm water and through an environment of low deep-layer wind shear, factors favorable for its rapid intensification (ADT | SATCON). After making landfall, Kenneth rapidly weakened to Category 1 intensity by 18 UTC — but Metop-A ASCAT winds of 40-49 knots were still sampled along the coast on the rear periphery of the storm. The slow inland movement of the remnants of Kenneth combined with copious amounts of tropical moisture as depicted by MIMIC TPW posed a concern for potential flooding problems.

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20, viewed using RealEarth (below), provided higher-resolution views of Kenneth a few hours prior to landfall. This was the strongest tropical cyclone landfall on record for the northern portion of Mozambique, as discussed here.

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed the eye and spiral band structures near the Mozambique coast at 1030 UTC on 25 April. The evolution of the eye since its initial formation on 23 April was evident in the MIMIC TC product.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (89 GHz) image [click to enlarge]

A longer animation of Meteosat-8 Infrared images (below) during the later half of its storm track showed the formation of an eye as Kenneth began its period of rapid intensification on 24 April. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -90ºC and colder (yellow pixels embedded with darker shades of purple) during the 1030-1800 UTC period on 24 April. Note that the center of Kenneth passed just north of the island of Grande Comore soon after the eye had developed — at Prince Said Ibrahim International Airport FMCH in Moroni, southeast winds gusted to 65 knots at 21 UTC 0n 24 April as the southern eyewall passed over the island.

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Meteosat-8 Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed Kenneth at 2232 UTC on 24 April, shortly before the tropical cyclone had reached Category 4 intensity. Ample illumination from the Moon — in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 73% of Full — provided an excellent example of the “visible image at night” capability of the VIIRS Day/Night Band.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]