Solar eclipse shadow in the Southern Hemisphere

December 4th, 2021 |

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (credit: Tim SchmIt, NOAA/NESDIS) [click to enlarge | MP4]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (above) showed the shadow of a total solar ecliipse in the Southern Hemisphere on 04 December 2021. Even though the 1.61 µm imagery is at a lower (1 km) spatial resolution, it provided better contrast than higher-resolution (0.5 km) 0.64 µm “Red” Visible imagery, helping to highlight the shadow (below). Note that the shadow passed over the Antarctic Peninsula.

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS) [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 CIMSS True Color RGB images (below) provided another view of the eclipse shadow’s progression. 

GOES-16 CIMSS True Color RGB images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS) [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

In a 3-panel comparison of GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below), note that the lack of solar reflection within the eclipse shadow led to cooler 3.9 µm brightness temperatures (lighter shades of gray).    

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, middle) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) images (credit: Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS/ASPB) [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

The shadow was also apparent in GOES-17 (GOES-West) images (below).

GOES-17 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm) images [click to play animated GIF | MP4]

A composite of POES AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) swaths around 0700 UTC (below) showed the shadow extending southward across South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and reaching the coast of Antarctica. 

Composite of POES AHVRR Visible (0.63 µm) swaths [click to enlarge]

In addition, portions of the solar eclipse shadow could be seen in True Color RGB images from Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20, as viewed using RealEarth (below).

VIIRS True Color RGB images from Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 [clck to enlarge]

This blog post discusses AMRC/AWS staff viewing the partial eclipse from Antarctica’s McMurdo Station.

Severe weather in Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana

April 22nd, 2020 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed thunderstorms that produced a variety of severe weather (SPC Storm Reports) across far southern Oklahoma on 22 April 2020. These discrete supercell storms developed along a cold front associated with a low pressure system moving across the region (surface analyses).

GOES-16 Visible and Infrared images with plots of time-matched SPC Storm Reports are shown below.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, top) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.35 µm, bottom) images, with plots of SPC Storm Reports [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm, bottom) images, with plots of SPC Storm Reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Farther to the southeast across eastern Texas, GOES-16 Visible and Infrared images (below) revealed a large and long-lived supercell thunderstorm that eventually moved eastward into Louisiana.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Visible and Infrared images with plots of time-matched SPC Storm Reports are shown below. An Above-Anvil Cirrus Plume was produced by this thunderstorm, and cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were as cold as -80ºC (violet pixels). Early in its life cycle, after dropping hail of 1.0-2.0 inches in diameter, the supercell produced the fatal EF-3 Onalaska tornado.

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, top) and "Clean" Infrared Window (10.35 µm, bottom) images, with plots of SPC Storm Reports [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm, bottom) images, with plots of SPC Storm Reports [click to play animation | MP4]

A toggle between 1-km resolution NOAA-19 AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images at 2338 UTC (below) provided a more detailed view of the Above-Anvil Cirrus Plume. The coldest cloud-top infrared brightness temperature in the region of the overshooting top was -84.7ºC.

NOAA-19 AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-19 AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Additional imagery of these storms is available on the Satellite Liaison Blog.

Bomb cyclone makes landfall along the Oregon/California coast

November 26th, 2019 |

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images, with 3-hourly plots of surface fronts [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images, with surface fronts plotted in cyan and buoy locations plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

A sequence of GOES-17 (GOES-West) Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (above) showed the evolution of a bomb cyclone (surface analyses: WPC | OPC) that made landfall along the Oregon/California coast just after sunset on 26 November 2019. The storm produced wind gusts of 106 mph in southwestern Oregon and 70 mph in northwestern California.

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images of the storm are shown below — the Mean Sea Level Pressure anomaly was 4-5 sigma below the climatological mean as the rapidly-deepening midlatitude cyclone made landfall. Similarly, 925 hPa wind speed anomaly was 3-5 sigma above the climatological mean. The system had transitioned to a warm seclusion phase by 00 UTC, as seen in a comparison of Visible and Water Vapor images at that time.

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images, with 3-hourly plots of surface fronts [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with surface fronts plotted in cyan and buoy locations plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

A GOES-17 Mesoscale Domain Sector was positioned over the region, providing Visible images at 1-minute intervals (below).

GOES-17

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface wind barbs and gusts in knots [click to play animation | MP4]

A larger-scale view of the entire GOES-17 Mesoscale Domain Sector is shown below, using Visible images from the AOS site.

GOES-17 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

1-km resolution NOAA-15 AVHRR Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) imagery at 0217 UTC (below) showed the center of circulation just off the Oregon/California coast. At that time, winds were gusting to 50 knots at Crescent City, California (KCEC).

NOAA-15 AVHRR Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) image at 0217 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-15 AVHRR Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) image at 0217 UTC, with plots of 02 UTC surface reports (cyan/yellow) and wind gusts (in knots, red) [click to enlarge]

A time series of surface data from Crescent City, California (below) showed the period when the air pressure dropped to 973.4 hPa (28.74 inches) — setting a new all-time low pressure record for the state of California. In addition, new low pressure records for the month of November were set at Medford, Oregon (981.4 hPa / 28.98 inches) and at Eureka, California (984.8 hPa / 29.08 inches).

Time series of surface data at Crescent City, California [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface data at Crescent City, California [click to enlarge]

Air pressure at the offshore buoy 8 miles NW of Crescent City (46027) dropped to 971.7 hPa (28.69 inches) at 0350 UTC (below).

Plots of Wind Speed (blue), Wind Gust (red) and Air Pressure (green) from Buoy 46027

Plots of Wind Speed (blue), Wind Gust (red) and Air Pressure (green) from Buoy 46027


Thunderstorm over the Arctic Ocean

August 11th, 2019 |

NOAK49 PAFG 110400 CCA
PNSAFG
AKZ222-111600-

Public Information Statement…CORRECTED
National Weather Service Fairbanks AK
800 PM AKDT Sat Aug 10 2019

…Lightning Detected within 300 Miles of North Pole Today…

A number of lightning strikes were recorded between 4pm and 6pm
today within 300 miles of the North Pole. The lightning strikes
occurred near 85 degrees north, 120 degrees east, which is about
700 miles north of the Lena River Delta of Siberia. This lightning
was detected by the GLD lightning detection network which is used
by the National Weather Service. This is one of the furthest
north lightning strikes in Alaska Forecaster memory.

$$

JB

As noted by the NWS Fairbanks forecast office, lightning was detected with a thunderstorm located over the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia between 6-8 pm AKDT on 10 August (or 00-02 UTC on 11 August 2019). A sequence of AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images from NOAA-15 (at 2315 UTC), NOAA-19 (at 0100 UTC) and NOAA-15 (at 0232 UTC) (below) showed the eastward motion of this thunderstorm, which had developed in advance of a 500 hPa lobe of vorticity — the coldest cloud-top infrared brightness temperature associated with this feature was -49.9ºC (yellow enhancement) at 0100 UTC.

NOAA-19 AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to enlarge]

AVHRR Visible (0.63 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images from NOAA-15 (at 2315 UTC), NOAA-19 (at 0100 UTC) and NOAA-15 (at 0232 UTC) [click to enlarge]