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Hyperspectral Trade Studies
The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), previously named Advanced Baseline Sounder (ABS), will replace the current GOES sounder which has 18 spectral bands. A high spectral resolution interferometer or grating sounder is being considered later in the GOES-R series. With high temporal resolution (better than 1 hour), high spatial resolution (better than 10 km), high-spectral-resolution (better than single wavenumber), and broad coverage (hemispheric), HES measurements will enable monitoring of the evolution of detailed temperature and moisture structures in clear skies with high accuracy (better than 1 C root mean square) and improved vertical resolution (about 1 km) over the current GOES sounder. The improved high spectral resolution sounder and high spatial resolution imager on future geostationary weather satellite will greatly enhance nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for a wide variety of applications.
The following research investigations for the future GOES (GOES-R and beyond) sounding system will be conducted at CIMSS to demonstrate the improved or new products from the HES system over the current GOES sounder system. The results from these studies will offer better understanding of future GOES HES observing systems.
Trade-off studiesTrade-off studies will help to understand the HES for future weather forecast purposes. The requirements include, but are not limited, to the spatial resolution, the temporal resolution, the spectral coverage, the spectral resolution, the instrument noise performance, etc. for HES. The trade-off studies will also help to determine be final formation of the HES.
Comparison of the HES improved products with current GOES sounder products and investigation of the new products with the HES observing systemBecause of the high spectral resolution and wide geographical coverage of HES, the high spatial resolution ABI with more spectral bands, and high ABI/HES radiometric resolution, the derived products such as atmospheric profile, trace gas, surface and cloud properties, aerosol, dust, etc. from ABI/HES system will be improved compared with those from the current GOES imager/sounder system. What will be the improvements? How these improvements will benefit weather monitoring and forecasting? These questions will be answered by both simulation studies and the real data demonstration using the EOS/Aqua MODIS/AIRS system. In addition, the ABI/HES will provide new products such as ozone profile, accurate surface and cloud types, accurate cloud microphysical properties such as cloud particle size and cloud optical thickness. These new products from ABI/HES and their potential applications will be investigated.
Algorithms for ABI/HES synergismThe algorithm for the ABI/HES synergistic retrieval should be efficient and accurate. Algorithms for ABI will be adapted and refined from the current GOES imager and MODIS; new algorithms will also be developed for ABI products. The ABI products include, but are not limited to, cloud mask, surface and cloud type classification mask, cloud property, total precipitable water, total ozone, and surface property, all with high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Algorithms for HES will be adapted and refined from MODIS, ATOVS, and AIRS. New algorithms will also be developed for the HES products. For example, the AIRS operational algorithm uses combined AIRS/AMSU radiances from 3 by 3 AIRS footprint and one AMSU footprint for one sounding retrieval; this will not be applicable to the HES sounding algorithm due to the lack of a geo-microwave sounder). The algorithms include Regression, Neuronal Network, Maximum Likelihood inverse, regularization inverse, etc. Besides algorithms for ABI alone products and HES alone products, algorithms on synergistic use of ABI/HES data for better sounding and non-sounding retrieval will be developed. MODIS/AIRS data will be used to demonstrate that combined ABI/HES will provide products with better accuracy than that from either system alone.
Algorithms for HES data processing and applicationThe algorithm should be efficient and accurate. Algorithms include, but are not limited to, atmospheric sounding retrieval, cloud property retrieval, surface property retrieval, trace gas retrieval, etc. The algorithms for HES will be based on the current approaches for ATOVS, MODIS, and NASTI data processing, and will be improved or updated according to the HES characteristics. The algorithms will be validated using AIRS/MODIS measurements.