Typhoon Kammuri makes landfall in the Philippines

December 2nd, 2019 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images (above) showed Typhoon Kammuri as it made landfall in the Philippines around 1500 UTC on 02 December 2019. Kammuri rapidly intensified from a Category 2 to a Category 4 storm (ADT | SATCON) shortly before landfall — it had been moving over very warm water (Sea Surface Temperature | Ocean Heat Content) in the Philippine Sea.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC viewed using RealEarth (below) depicted Kammuri 2-3 hours after landfall.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) imagery at 1725 UTC (below) revealed a large eye and nearly circular eyewall.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

Typhoon Kammuri in the West Pacific Ocean, with record cold cloud-top temperatures

November 30th, 2019 |

Himawari-8 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed a large canopy of cold cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) associated with Category 1 Typhoon Kammuri in the West Pacific Ocean on 30 November 2019. Between 00 UTC and 05 UTC, many of the pulsing overshooting tops exhibited BTs -100ºC or colder (shades of red embedded in black on the coldest end of the scale). — the coldest BT was -103.55ºC at 02:59:44 UTC.

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0421 UTC as viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed an area of very cold cloud-top infrared BTs (highlighted by the yellow region near the center of the storm). The coldest BT within that yellow area was -109.35ºC — which would qualify as the coldest cloud-top temperature on record as sensed by a meteorological satellite (Weather Underground).

 NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0420 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0421 UTC [click to enlarge]

The NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared image at 0421 UTC is shown below with 2 different color enhancements — the darker blue colors of the 160-to-200 K enhancement help to highlight the colder BT regions (including the coldest 163.8 K or -109.35ºC pixel).

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm), with different color enhancements (credit: William Straka) [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) image at 0421 UTC, with 2 different color enhancements (credit: William Straka, CMSS) [click to enlarge]

On the closest (time-wise) Himawari-8 Infrared image at 04:22:15 UTC, the coldest cloud-top BT was -102.5ºC. In a toggle between magnified Himawari-8 Visible and Infrared images at that time (below), the -102.5ºC BT was located within the northernmost cluster of red pixels (where shadowing and texture in the Visible image highlighted the overshooting top).

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (10.4 µm) images at 0422 UTC [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (10.4 µm) images at 0422 UTC [click to enlarge]

The nearest upper air site was Babelthuop Airport/Koror on Palau Island, located south of the storm — the coldest temperature in their 00 UTC rawinsonde data (below) was -81.9ºC at an altitude of 16.7 km. Assuming that the overshooting top cooled at a lapse rate of around 7.5ºC per km of ascent beyond the -81.9ºC tropopause (reference), the altitude of the coldest -109.35ºC cloud top was likely near 19.5 km.

Plots of 00 UTC and 12 UTC rawinsonde data from Koror, Palau Island [click to enlarge]

Plots of 00 UTC and 12 UTC rawinsonde data from Koror, Palau Island [click to enlarge]

During the daylight hours on 30 November, Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) revealed widespread cloud-top gravity waves which were moving outward away from intense convection with overshooting tops near the storm center. Many of these gravity waves were propagating along the tops of tendrils of transverse banding — especially within the southern semicircle of Kammuri.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

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Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1604 UTC [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1604 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP at 1604 UTC (above) and NOAA-20 at 1654 UTC (below) showed mesospheric airglow waves propagating southward in the DNB images.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1654 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1654 UTC (credit: William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

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6.9 µm) images, with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images, with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images with contours of Deep-Layer Wind Shear (above) indicated that Kammuri was moving through an environment of low to moderate shear. Himawari-8 Water Vapor images with plots of satellite-derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors (below) showed a well-defined outflow channel north of the tropical cyclone.

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.9 µm) images, with Derived Motion Winds [click to enlarge]

Himawari-8 Water Vapor (6.2 µm) images, with plots of Derived Motion Winds [click to enlarge]

Stereoscopic views of Tropical Storm Olga in the Gulf of Mexico

October 25th, 2019 |

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) Red Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, 1230 – 2350 UTC on 24 October 2019. To view in three dimensions, cross your eyes until 3 images are apparent, and focus on the image in the middle (Click to animate)

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) Red Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, 1240 – 2350 UTC on 25 October 2019. To view in three dimensions, cross your eyes until 3 images are apparent, and focus on the image in the middle (Click to animate)

GOES-16 and GOES-17, although separated by 60 of longitude, can be combined to create stereoscopic imagery in the Gulf of Mexico. The top-most animation, from 24 October 2019, shows the disturbance in the southwest Gulf of Mexico that ulimately becomes Tropical Storm Olga. The bottom animation is from 25 October, a day when the low-level circulation of the storm is apparent.

Tropical Storm Olga is at the northern edge of a very moist airmass as determined from Microwave measurements.  The MIMIC animation, below, from this site, shows the extent of the moist region.  (The moisture associated with Pablo is also apparent)  Dry air moving into the Gulf of Mexico from Texas is restricting the horizontal extent of the moisture. That front moving into the Gulf is expected to overtake Olga as it transitions to an extratropical storm. Heavy rains with this system have already moved into Louisiana and Mississippi.

Microwave-derived Total Precipitable Water, hourly for the 24 hours ending at 21 UTC on 25 October 2019 (Click to enlarge)

For more information on Tropical Storm Olga, refer to the website of the National Hurricane Center. Interests along the Gulf Coast and inland should pay attention to this storm.

Tropical Storm Pablo in the East Atlantic Ocean

October 25th, 2019 |

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) displayed the compact circulation and pinhole eye of Tropical Storm Pablo which developed in the East Atlantic Ocean on 25 October 2019.

A toggle between Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images viewed using RealEarth  provided a higher-resolution view of Pablo around 15 UTC (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A larger-scale view of the VIIRS images (below) showed that the compact Pablo was embedded within a broad anomalously-deep area of low pressure over the eastern Atlantic.

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

===== 26 October Update =====

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Visible and Infrared images (above) showed Tropical Storm Pablo southwest of the Azores on 26 October.

After sunset, GOES-16 Infrared images (below) captured Pablo as it pass across the Azores, southeast of Santa Maria (LPAZ) — during that time, the tropical cyclone lost its intermittent eye feature.

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]