Sea fog along the northeast Florida coast

March 21st, 2015 |
GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 (GOES-East) 0.63 µm visible channel images (above; click to play animation) showed a patch of sea fog just off the coast of northeastern Florida on 21 March 2015. As daytime inland heating increased, a sea breeze circulation began to draw some of the offshore sea fog toward the coast.

A closer view is provided by a Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image at 18:08 UTC (below), visualized using the SSEC RealEarth web map server site. The surface visibility at New Smyrna Beach was reduced to 1 mile at the time.

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color image

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color image

A web camera image at 18:17 UTC or 2:17 PM local time (below) showed the dramatic reduction in visibility as the dense sea fog moved inland at Dunlawton Beach (near Daytona Beach).

Dunlawton Beach webcam image

Dunlawton Beach webcam image

A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel, 3.74 µm shortwave IR channel, and 11.45 µm longwave IR images (below) showed that the patch of sea fog exhibited a strong signal on the shortwave IR image (due to the efficient reflection of incoming solar radiation by the spherical water droplets), but no signal at all on the longwave IR image (since the temperature of the sea fog feature was nearly identical to that of the surrounding ocean waters).

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel, 3.74 µm shortwave IR channel, and 11.45 µm longwaveIR channel images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel, 3.74 µm shortwave IR channel, and 11.45 µm longwaveIR channel images

The easterly to northeasterly onshore flow along the coast (enhanced by the sea breeze circulation) was well-depicted by the 18 UTC Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) surface winds (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel image, with RTMA surface winds

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel image, with RTMA surface winds

Solar Eclipse as seen from GOES-13 and NOAA-18

March 20th, 2015 |
GOES-13 0.65 µm visible channel images (click to enlarge)

GOES-13 0.65 µm visible channel images (click to enlarge)

A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March before sunrise over the USA. Its appearance on visible imagery from Meteosat-10 was documented here and here. Did GOES-13 also view this event? The imagery above, half-hourly from 0845 through 0945 UTC, shows evidence of darkening (the lunar shadow) initially near 40 N, then a very dark slice in the atmosphere at 0915 UTC and a hint of darkness at 0945 UTC at the extreme limb of the satellite, beyond Iceland. Note also how the terminator in the image, the boundary between day and night, is parallel to longitudinal lines. Happy Equinox!

The shadow of totality was also captured on a NOAA-18 AVHRR 0.86 µm visible channel image at 0907 UTC (below). The shadow extends out over the Atlantic Ocean well to the northeast of Newfoundland.

NOAA-18 AVHRR 0.86 µm visible channel image

NOAA-18 AVHRR 0.86 µm visible channel image

Strong arctic cold front: grass fires, blowing dust, and a lee-side frontal gravity wave

March 17th, 2015 |
GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel images (click to play animation)

After a day of record high temperatures in parts of Nebraska — the 91º F at North Platte set a new record high for the month of March, and was also the earliest temperature of 90º F or above on record at that site — a strong arctic cold front plunged southward across the state late in the day on 16 March 2015. With strong winds (gusting to 40-50 knots at some locations) in the wake of the frontal passage and dry vegetation fuels in place, GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (above; click image to play animation) showed the “hot spot” signatures (black to yellow to red pixels) associated with a number of large grass fires that began to burn across the state.

The strong northwesterly winds behind the cold front also lofted dry soil into the boundary layer, creating blowing dust whose hazy signature was evident on GOES-13 0.63 visible channel images (below; click image to play animation). Visibility was reduced to 7 miles at some locations.

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

After sunset and into the pre-dawn hours on 17 March, a lee-side frontal gravity wave signature could be seen on GOES-13 6.5 µm water vapor channel images (below; click image to play animation). This warmer/drier (darker blue color enhancement) arc on the water vapor imagery followed the position of the surface cold front, which meant that the upward-propagating frontal gravity wave reached altitudes where the water vapor channel was sensing radiation.

GOES-13 6.5 µm water vapor channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 6.5 µm water vapor channel images (click to play animation)

As the frontal gravity wave was approaching the Kansas/Oklahoma border region around 05 UTC, a pilot reported light to moderate turbulence at altitude of 6000 feet (below).

GOES-13 6.5 µm water vapor channel image with pilot report of turbulence

GOES-13 6.5 µm water vapor channel image with pilot report of turbulence

A 4-panel comparison of the three Sounder water vapor channels (6.5 µm, 7.0 µm, and 7.4 µm) and the standard Imager 6.5 µm water vapor channel (below; click image to play animation) showed that the southward propagation of the frontal gravity wave signature was most evident on the Sounder 7.0 µm and Imager 6.5 µm images, although there was also a more subtle indication on the Sounder 7.4 µm images. The new generation of geostationary satellite Imager instruments (for example, the AHI on Himawari-8 and the ABI on GOES-R) feature 3 water vapor channels which are similar to those on the current GOES Sounder, but at much higher spatial and temporal resolutions

GOES-13 Sounder 6.5 µm (upper left), 7.0 µm (upper right), 7.4 µm (lower left), and Imager 6.5 µm (lower right) - click to play animation

GOES-13 Sounder 6.5 µm (upper left), 7.0 µm (upper right), 7.4 µm (lower left), and Imager 6.5 µm (lower right) – click to play animation

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GOES-13 Sounder and Imager water vapor channel weighting functions for North Platte, Nebraska

GOES-13 Sounder and Imager water vapor channel weighting functions for North Platte, Nebraska

The depth and altitude of the layer from which a particular water vapor channel is detecting radiation is shown by plotting its weighting function — for example, at North Platte, Nebraska (above), the Imager 6.5 µm plot (black) and the 7.0 µm plot (green) exhibited lower-altitude secondary peaks around the 500 hPa level — while farther to the south at Dodge City, Kansas (below) these 2 water vapor channel plots had their peaks located slightly higher in the atmosphere. Even though the bulk of the radiation was being detected from higher altitudes (due to the presence of moisture and cirrus clouds aloft over much of the southern Plains region), the sharp signal of the lower-altitude cold frontal gravity wave was strong enough to be seen in the deep layer average moisture brightness temperature depicted in the water vapor images.

GOES-13 Sounder and Imager water vapor channel weighting functions

GOES-13 Sounder and Imager water vapor channel weighting functions

Test of GOES-15 (GOES-West) Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sectors for the Alaska Region

March 17th, 2015 |
GOES-15

GOES-15 “Sitka” RSO Sector

During a 4-hour period on 17 March 2015, NOAA/NESDIS conducted a test of two special GOES-15 (GOES-West) Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sectors for the Alaska Region. From 16:00 to 18:00 UTC, the test was conducted for the “Sitka” sector (above) — and GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images over a portion of that sector (below; click image to play animation) showed the circulation of a mid-latitude cyclone that was producing gale force winds in the eastern portion of the Gulf of Alaska (IR image with surface analysis), as well as clusters of deep convection which were forming along an occluded front approaching from the south.

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible images -

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible images – “Sitka” sector (click to play animation)

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GOES-15

GOES-15 “TPARC” RSO sector

Then from 18:00 to 20:00 UTC, the RSO test was conducted for the “TPARC” sector (above) — and GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed the circulation of two cyclones south of the Aleutian Islands, in addition to a large “banner cloud” and a few mountain waves which had formed downwind (to the north) of the rugged terrain of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. GOES-15 IR brightness temperatures associated with the banner cloud were as cold as -65 C, which according to the nearby Bethel, Alaska rawinsonde data at 12 UTC corresponded to an altitude of around 27,700 feet (IR image with Bethel Skew-T and surface analysis).

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images -

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images – “TPARC” sector (click to play animation)

Regarding the Alaska Peninsula banner cloud seen on the GOES-15 visible images, a sequence of Terra/Aqua MODIS 11.0 µm and Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR images (below; click image to play animation) showed the evolution of this feature several hours before and after the RSO test. There were a few pilot reports of moderate turbulence, at altitudes as high as 36,000 feet – and some of these pilot reports specifically mentioned “MNT WAVE” in their remarks.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR image (click to play animation of VIIRS and MODIS IR images)

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR image (click to play animation of VIIRS and MODIS IR images)

The CLAVR-x POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (below; click image to play animation) indicated that the banner cloud reached heights of 9 km (darker green color enhancement).

POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (click to play animation)

POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (click to play animation)