Solar eclipse shadow as seen from geostationary satellites

March 9th, 2016 |

Himawari-8 true-color images [click to play MP4 animation]

Himawari-8 true-color images [click to play MP4 animation]

The shadow of the total solar eclipse of 09 March 2016 was captured by a number of geostationary satellites, including JMA Himawari-8 (above; also available as either a large 140 Mbyte animated GIF, or a YouTube video: large) | small) and KMA COMS-1 (below). The Himawari-8 true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images were created using the Simple Hybrid Contrast Stretch (SHCS) method by Yasuhiko Sumida, SSEC visiting scientist from JMA.

COMS-1 Visible (0.67 um) images [click to play animation]

COMS-1 Visible (0.67 um) images [click to play animation]

Toward the end of the eclipse, the shadow was also seen with NOAA GOES-15 (below) as it moved northwest and north of Hawai’i.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 um) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 um) images [click to play animation]

In addition, the eclipse shadow was captured with the Chinese satellites FY-2E and FY-2G (below).

FY-2E Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to enlarge]

FY-2E Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to enlarge]

FY-2G Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to enlarge]

FY-2G Visible (0.73 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES Water Vapor Animations for 2015

January 1st, 2016 |

The GOES-13 and GOES-15 Imager provides routine observations at five wavelengths, including 6.5 µm, a wavelength that is sensitive to water vapor absorption (SHyMet lesson). The YouTube animations below show full-disk GOES-13 (GOES-East) and GOES-15 (GOES-West) water vapor images at 3-hour intervals for every day during 2015. GOES-15 shows the remarkable tropical cyclone activity that occurred as a result of warmer-than-normal sea surface temperatures over the central Pacific. Much less hurricane activity occurred in the Atlantic.

Once GOES-R is launched in late 2016, the ABI instrument will provide full-disk images at 5-minute intervals, rather than the 3-hour intervals shown here. The animations from GOES-R will contain 288 images per day rather than 8.



40th Anniversary of the “Edmund Fitzgerald Storm”

November 10th, 2015 |

NOAA-4 daytime and nighttime Infrared composites [click to enlarge]

NOAA-4 daytime and nighttime Infrared composites [click to enlarge]

Today marks the 40-year anniversary of the powerful Great Lakes storm that was responsible for the sinking of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald (which occurred on 10 November 1975). The image composites (above, courtesy of Jean Phillips, Schwerdtfeger Library) were constructed from daytime and nighttime overpasses of the NOAA-4 polar-orbiting satellite, and show the large cloud shield of the storm moving northeastward from the Great Lakes into eastern Canada during the 10-11 November 1975 period. The rapidly-intensifying nature of the storm can seen by comparing the 12 UTC surface analyses on 09 November and 10 November.

Since the first operational geostationary weather satellites (SMS-1 and SMS-2) were relatively new back in 1975, the CIMSS Regional Assimilation System (CRAS) model was utilized to generate synthetic Infrared (IR) satellite images to provide a general idea of what the satellite imagery might have looked like for this intense storm. The 48-hour sequence of synthetic CRAS IR images (below) shows the evolution of the model-derived cloud features at 1-hour intervals.

CRAS model simulated Infrared imagery [click to enlarge]

CRAS model simulated Infrared imagery [click to enlarge]

Additional information about this Edmond Fitzgerald storm can be seen on this website and this lecture, as well as the NWS Marquette and this journal article.

A strong storm of similar character developed over the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes region on 9-11 November 1998. GOES-8 (GOES-East) Infrared (10.7 µm) and Water Vapor (6.7 µm) images of this 1998 storm are shown below (and are also available as YouTube videos). This storm set all-time minimum barometric pressure records for the state of Minnesota, with 962 mb (28.43″) recorded at Albert Lea and Austin in southern Minnesota. On the cold side of the storm, up to 12.5 inches of snow fell at Sioux Falls in southeastern South Dakota. Wind gusts were as high as 64 mph in Minnesota and 94 mph in Wisconsin.

GOES-8 Infrared (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-8 Infrared (10.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-8 Water Vapor (6.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-8 Water Vapor (6.7 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Hourly GOES Animations from August 2015

September 1st, 2015 |


The YouTube video embedded above shows GOES-13 Water Vapor (6.5 µm) images each hour for all of August 2015. The 10.7 µm Infrared window channel animation is shown below. Both show a remarkable lack of thunderstorm activity in the Caribbean Sea.


In addition, hourly Water Vapor (6.5 µm) and Infrared window channel (10.7 µm) imagery from GOES-15 is shown below.



The GOES-15 imagery includes the northern fringe of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the active Eastern Pacific hurricane season is apparent, including several storms that have threatened the state of Hawai’i. The atypically strong August storm that hit the Pacific Northwest is also seen at the end of the animations.