In addition, there are 3 water vapor channels on the Himawari-8 AHI instrument – a comparison of these 3 water vapor bands (below) offers a closer look at the aforementioned waves within the dry slot. The weighting functions for each of the 3 water vapor bands (centred at 6.2 µm, 6.9 µm, and 7.3 µm) peak at progressivesly lower altitudes, providing different views of features within those particular atmospheric layers. The same color enhancement is applied to the 3 sets of water vapor images — note that warmer brightness temperatures (yellow to orange colors) dominate the 6.9 µm and 7.3 µm images (which are showing features at lower altitudes, where the atmosphere is warmer).Similar improvements in spatial and temporal resolution will be seen with imagery from the upcoming GOES-R ABI, which will also feature 3 similar water vapor bands (weighting functions); however, the ABI will provide full-disk images every 5 minutes.
Himawari-8 (Imagery courtesy of JMA) captured the northward march of three sets of Internal Waves in the Banda Sea in late October, as shown above (MODIS True Color Imagery showed the waves as well). Because the internal waves affect the ocean surface, sun glint can make them visible via methods described here. The fine spatial and temporal resolution of Himawari-8 (0.5 km for Band 3/0.64µm, 10-minute imagery) allows for a good description of the northward speed of the waves: approximately 10 km/hour.
MTSAT-2 (scheduled to become the backup satellite on Friday 4 December 2015 as Himawari-8 takes over operational duties; MTSAT-1 is to be decommissioned that day because of fuel limitations) and COMS-1 also viewed the waves, as shown below. Sun glint allowed MTSAT-2 to view only three scenes (3:32, 4:32 and 5:32 UTC). COMS-1, above the Equator at 128º E, farther west than MTSAT-2 (at 145º E), viewed the waves earlier (because sunglint was present over the scene earlier). Both MTSAT-2 and COMS-1 visible channels have nominal resolution of only 1 km.
Hat Tip to Mike Ziobro, NWS Guam, for showing us these very interesting waves!
A comparison of DMSP SSMIS microwave (85 GHz) and MSAT-2 infrared (10.8 µm) images around 20 UTC is shown below (courtesy of the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site).On the topic of eye mesovortices, a more detailed view of these features could be seen on daylight 0.64 µm visible images (below; click image to play MP4 animation). A large (28 Mbyte) animated GIF is available here.