Iceberg near Innaarsuit, Greenland

July 20th, 2018 |

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image swaths, zoomed in to show the iceberg near Innaarsuit, Greenland [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image swaths, zoomed in to show the iceberg near Innaarsuit, Greenland [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images viewed using RealEarth (above) is zoomed in (final image) to show a large iceberg (snow and ice appear as cyan) near the island community of Innaarsuit, Greenland (shades of light green) on 20 July 2018. Media stories about this iceberg can be found here and here.

County Fire in central California

July 1st, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with airport identifiers plotted in yellow [click to play animation | MP4]

The County Fire began burning in central California (northwest of Sacramento) around 2112 UTC or 2:12 pm local time on 30 June 2018 — GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the smoke plume and thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (dark black to red pixels) of the fire during its initial 6.5 hours. Other features of interest in the imagery included reflection of sunlight from solar panel farms as seen here and here, as well as sun glint off the waters of the Sacramento River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta as seen here.

During the subsequent overnight hours, the thermal signature exhibited on GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below) revealed the rapid southward spread of the fire along the Napa/Yolo county line — the fire began in far western Yolo County, and eventually moved into far eastern Napa County. The smaller, less intense fire signature seen just to the northwest was that of the Pawnee Fire.

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, left), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with airport identifiers plotted in yellow and Napa/Yolo County outlines plotted in blue [click to play animation | MP4]

A toggle between Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images (below) showed the thermal anomaly and bright glow of the County fire at 1043 UTC or 3:43 am local time. Due to ample illumination from the Moon (in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 90% of Full), the smoke plume could be seen drifting southwest over the adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean — note the shadow cast by the smoke plume upon the fog/stratus deck immediately off the coast.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

A toggle between consecutive Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images (below) showed the change in location of the smoke plume during the ~1 hour and 40 minutes separating the 2 satellite overpasses. The region was on the far western edge of the earlier swath. These images demonstrate the “visible image at night” capability of the VIIRS Day/Night Band.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

The 00 UTC rawinsonde data from nearby Oakland (below) showed northeasterly winds at altitudes of 1500-2800 meters or 4900-9200 feet.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Oakland, California [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Oakland, California [click to enlarge]

During the late morning and early afternoon of 01 July, the fire burn scar could be seen beneath the smoke plume on 250-meter resolution Terra and Aqua MODIS False Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images viewed using RealEarth (below).

Terra MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

===== 03 July Update =====

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image [click to enlarge]

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color RGB image (above) showed the areal extent of the County Fire burn scar on the morning of 03 July. Pink-colored pixels indicated hot signatures of actively-burning fires. The morning Incident Report listed the fire size at 70,000 acres and 5% containment.

Fog/stratus over Lake Michigan

June 30th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

As a warm and very humid air mass (surface analyses) moved northward across the relatively cool waters of Lake Michigan on 30 June 2018, GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) revealed complex interactions of the resulting fog/stratus with coastlines and islands — features such as “bow shock waves” and internal reflections of waves off the northern end of the lake could be seen.

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 false-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image viewed using RealEarth (below) provided a very detailed view of the fog/stratus structure over the northern end of the lake.

Landsat-8 false-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 false-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

The Aqua MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product at 1734 UTC (below) showed SST values in the middle 60s to around 70ºF across the southern end of Lake Michigan (the southern lake buoy reported a water temperature of 66ºF), transitioning to SST values around 60ºF mid-lake. The northern lake buoy reported a water temperature of 54ºF — much colder than the surface air dew points that were in the low to middle 70s F, which explained the more widespread coverage of lake fog/stratus farther north.

Aqua MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product, with plots of surface and buoy reports [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product, with plots of surface and buoy reports [click to enlarge]

Convection and Flooding over northern Wisconsin

June 17th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI Clean Window (10.3 µm) Infrared Imagery, 0200-0559 UTC on 17 June 2018 (Click to animate)

Persistent convection over northern Wisconsin, Minnesota and upper Michigan late Saturday (16 June)/early Sunday (17 June) caused significant flooding.  The animation above shows GOES-16 ABI “Clean Window” Infrared Imagery from 0200-0600 UTC on 17 June.  Note the persistence of the cold overshooting tops over western Bayfield County in northwestern Wisconsin! A longer Infrared animation (0110-1200 UTC) which includes hourly plots of precipitation type (yellow) and SPC storm reports of damaging winds (cyan) is available here. 7-day precipitation departures in some areas were 4 to 8 inches above normal for that period (or 600% of normal).

This link from Wisconsin Emergency Management shows aerial pictures of the flood damage. Of note is the break in US Highway 2 to the west of Ashland WI.

The heavy rains also affected runoff into Lake Superior. MODIS imagery, below, from the MODIS Today site (also available from RealEarth: Link), shows considerable offshore flow of sediment on 19 June (a similar image from 18 June is here, with a toggle between the 2 days here).

True-Color Imagery from Aqua MODIS on 19 June 2018 (Click to enlarge)

A Landsat-8 False-Color image, below, showed pockets of flooding (darker blue) adjacent to the Nemadji River in Superior WI on the morning of 19 June — water also cover a portion of US Highway 2/53. The Nemadji River had crested in Superior at a record 29.5 feet on the evening of 17 June (NWS Duluth summary).

Landsat-8 False-Color image (Click to enlarge)

False-Color image from Landsat-8 on 19 June 2018 (Click to enlarge)


============================ Added 22 June ==============================
 

NOAA’s Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center (Link) created an Exceedance Probability Analysis for this event at 6-hour, 24-hour and 72-hout time spans, available here (from this link). Probabilities suggest this was an exceedingly rare event.

The continuation of sediment flow into Lake Superior could be seen in a series of daily MODIS True-Color images here.