Calbuco volcanic eruption in Chile

April 23rd, 2015
GOES-13 (GOES-East) 0.63 µm visible and 10.7 µm IR channel images at 2138 UTC (with surface reports)

GOES-13 (GOES-East) 0.63 µm visible and 10.7 µm IR channel images at 2138 UTC (with surface reports)

The Calbuco volcano in southern Chile erupted around 2103 UTC or 6:03 pm local time on 22 April 2015. The first good satellite view of the volcanic cloud was provided by the 2138 UTC or 6:38 pm local time GOES-13 (GOES-East) 0.63 µm visible channel and 10.7 µm IR channel images (above). The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature at that time was -65º C, which was very close to the tropopause temperature as indicated on the nearby Puerto Montt rawinsonde reports from 1200 UTC on 22 April and 23 April — the height of the tropopause was between 12.3 and 15.6 km on each day (there were 2 tropopause levels coded in both of the upper air reports).

However, before the volcanic cloud was seen, a well-defined thermal anomaly or “hot spot” was evident on the previous GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR image at 2045 UTC or 5:45 pm local time (below). The hottest 3.9 µm IR brightness temperature at that time was 340.8 K (red pixel), which is very close to the saturation temperature of the GOES-13 3.9 µm detectors.

GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR image at 2045 UTC

GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR image at 2045 UTC

An oblique view of the early stage of the volcanic cloud was captured on a 2100 UTC GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image (below; closer view).

GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image at 2100 UTC

GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image at 2100 UTC

A sequence of GOES-13 (GOES-East) 10.7 µm IR channel images (below; click image to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) revealed that there was a second explosive eruption that began sometime before the 0508 UTC or 2:08 am local time image on 23 April. The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature with this second eruption was -68º C at 0808 UTC. Also, at 0508 UTC mesospheric airglow waves were seen with Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band imagery.

GOES-13 (GOES-East) 10.7 µm IR images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 (GOES-East) 10.7 µm IR images (click to play animation)

On the morning of 23 April, a 1200 UTC GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image (below) provided a good view of the large areal coverage of volcanic cloud material resulting from the 2 eruptions.

GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image

GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible image

Finally, a before-eruption (21 April) and post-eruption (23 April) comparison of Aqua MODIS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images as visualized using the SSEC RealEarth web map server (below) showed the effect of ashfall on some of the higher terrain downwind of Calbuco, which was particularly evident on the snow-capped summits of the Osorno and Puyehue volcanoes (yellow arrows).

Before (21 April) and after (23 April) Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images

Before (21 April) and after (23 April) Aqua MODIS true-color RGB images

—– 24 April Update —–

A series of GOES-13 and Terra/Aqua MODIS volcanic ash height retrieval images from the SSEC Volcano Monitoring site (below; click image to play animation) showed that the ash from each of the two explosive eruptions reached heights of around 20 km (black color enhancement), which was well into the stratosphere.

GOES-13 and Terra/Aqua MODIS volcanic ash height retrieval values (click to play animation)

GOES-13 and Terra/Aqua MODIS volcanic ash height retrieval values (click to play animation)

Hawai’i demonstrates that the Water Vapor channel is an Infrared channel

April 6th, 2015
GOES-15 6.5 µm water vapor channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-15 6.5 µm water vapor channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-15 (GOES-West) 6.5 µm “water vapor channel” images (above; click image to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) revealed an interesting transition in the signal displayed by the 2 summits (Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa) on the Big Island of Hawai’i on 06 April 2015 — beginning as a pair of colder (darker blue color enhancement) areas during the nighttime hours, becoming a pair of warmer (brighter yellow color enhancement) areas as daytime heating warmed the land surfaces.

As was discussed in a previous blog post, the water vapor channel is essentially an Infrared (IR) channel that senses the mean temperature of a layer of moisture — usually a layer which is located in the middle troposphere. However, if the middle troposphere is dry, the water vapor detectors are able to “see” lower into the atmosphere and detect radiation from the lower atmosphere (or even high-elevation terrain features, such as Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa). A comparison of the 00 UTC and 12 UTC rawinsonde profiles from Hilo (below) showed that the middle troposphere was indeed quite dry, with the typical tropical moisture residing below the 700 hPa pressure level.

Hilo, Hawai'i rawinsonde data profiles (00, 12 UTC)

Hilo, Hawai’i rawinsonde data profiles (00, 12 UTC)

The altitude (and depth) of the layer being sensed by a water vapor channel is defined by its weighting function, which depends on (1) the temperature and moisture profile of the atmosphere, and (2) the satellite viewing angle or “zenith angle”. This site allows you to select a rawinsonde site of interest, and the GOES Imager (and Sounder) water vapor channel weighting functions are calculated and plotted. The GOES-15 Imager water vapor channel weighting functions for the 2 Hilo soundings are shown below (along with the weighting function for the US Standard Atmosphere). It can be seen that the peak of the weighting function response is at a lower altitude for both Hilo soundings than it would be for the US Standard Atmosphere, which in part allows the strong cold/warm thermal signatures of the two Big Island summits to be seen on the GOES-15 water vapor imagery.

Hilo, Hawai'i GOES-15 imager water vapor weighting functions, compared with the US Standard Atmosphere

Hilo, Hawai’i GOES-15 imager water vapor weighting functions, compared with the US Standard Atmosphere

Volcanic Eruption on Kamchatka

March 26th, 2015
Himawari-8 Visible (0.64µm) Imagery (Click to animate)

Himawari-8 Visible (0.64µm) Imagery (click to animate)

Infrared imagery from Himawari-8 has a nominal resolution of two km (at the sub-satellite point), but a visible channel has a nominal resolution of 0.5 km which can provide imagery with great detail. In the example above, the visible imagery captures the eruption, beginning around 2210 UTC on 25 March 2015, of the Shiveluch volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula. The volcanic plume then moves downstream in northwesterly flow. Himawari-8 remains in post-launch testing, the period when the satellite calibration and navigation is thoroughly checked.

Suomi NPP overflew this region multiple times on 26 March 2015. VIIRS data from a 0126 UTC overpass, below, taken from this website, show satellite-based diagnostics of this event. The animation cycles through a Brightness Temperature Difference (11µm – 12µm), Ash Loading, Ash Height and a False Color RGB presentation of the volcanic plume.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Brightness Temperature Difference (11µm -12µm), Ash Loading, Ash Height, and False Color Imagery, 0126 UTC 26 March 2015 (Click to enlarge)

Suomi NPP VIIRS Brightness Temperature Difference (11µm -12µm), Ash Loading, Ash Height, and False Color Imagery, 0126 UTC 26 March 2015 (click to enlarge)

Update: On 26 March, a Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color RGB image from the SSEC RealEarth site provided a nice view of the Shiveluch volcanic plume (below); also evident on the true-color image (as well as on images from the previous two days) to the north of Shiveluch were a pair of volcanic ash “fall streaks”, where the tan-colored ash landed on top of the existing snow cover.

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color images from 24, 25, and 26 March

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color images from 24, 25, and 26 March

GOES-15 also viewed the eruption, at the extreme edge of its limb, as seen on the sequence of 0.63 µm visible channel images below (Shiveluch is at the center of the images).

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

Test of GOES-15 (GOES-West) Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sectors for the Alaska Region

March 17th, 2015
GOES-15

GOES-15 “Sitka” RSO Sector

During a 4-hour period on 17 March 2015, NOAA/NESDIS conducted a test of two special GOES-15 (GOES-West) Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) sectors for the Alaska Region. From 16:00 to 18:00 UTC, the test was conducted for the “Sitka” sector (above) — and GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images over a portion of that sector (below; click image to play animation) showed the circulation of a mid-latitude cyclone that was producing gale force winds in the eastern portion of the Gulf of Alaska (IR image with surface analysis), as well as clusters of deep convection which were forming along an occluded front approaching from the south.

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible images -

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible images – “Sitka” sector (click to play animation)

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GOES-15

GOES-15 “TPARC” RSO sector

Then from 18:00 to 20:00 UTC, the RSO test was conducted for the “TPARC” sector (above) — and GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed the circulation of two cyclones south of the Aleutian Islands, in addition to a large “banner cloud” and a few mountain waves which had formed downwind (to the north) of the rugged terrain of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. GOES-15 IR brightness temperatures associated with the banner cloud were as cold as -65 C, which according to the nearby Bethel, Alaska rawinsonde data at 12 UTC corresponded to an altitude of around 27,700 feet (IR image with Bethel Skew-T and surface analysis).

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images -

GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images – “TPARC” sector (click to play animation)

Regarding the Alaska Peninsula banner cloud seen on the GOES-15 visible images, a sequence of Terra/Aqua MODIS 11.0 µm and Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR images (below; click image to play animation) showed the evolution of this feature several hours before and after the RSO test. There were a few pilot reports of moderate turbulence, at altitudes as high as 36,000 feet – and some of these pilot reports specifically mentioned “MNT WAVE” in their remarks.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR image (click to play animation of VIIRS and MODIS IR images)

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR image (click to play animation of VIIRS and MODIS IR images)

The CLAVR-x POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (below; click image to play animation) indicated that the banner cloud reached heights of 9 km (darker green color enhancement).

POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (click to play animation)

POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product (click to play animation)