GOES-14 is operating in SRSO-R Mode

August 9th, 2016

GOES-14 0.62 µm Visible images from 1230 to 1245 UTC on 9 August 2016 [click to play animation]

GOES-14 0.62 µm Visible images from 1230 to 1245 UTC on 9 August 2016 [click to play animation]

GOES-14 is in SRSO-R mode from today through 25 August, providing 1-minute imagery over western portions of the United States. The geographic footprint for 9 August 2016 is shown above (realtime images), and the 15-minute animation contains 13 images, versus the normal 2 that GOES-East or GOES-West would provide during routine scanning. This one-minute imagery is being provided to help prepare for GOES-R; GOES-R is scheduled to launch on 4 November, and when operational it will routinely provide 1-minute imagery in mesoscale sectors.

Shown below is a comparison of GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-14 and GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible images covering the longer 1-hour period of 1230-1330 UTC, focusing on a area of thunderstorms over North Texas. During this time, there are 53 images from GOES-14, compared to 7 images from GOES-15 and 5 images from GOES-13 — note how the evolution of overshooting tops is very easy to follow using the 1-minute GOES-14 imagery.

GOES-15 (left), GOES-14 (center and GOES-13 (right) Visible images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 (left), GOES-14 (center and GOES-13 (right) Visible images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 also monitored the dissipation of fog/low stratus clouds over Nebraska, as seen in the animation below. Additional details can be found here.

GOES-14 Visible (0.62 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.62 µm) images [click to play animation]

Later in the day, the GOES-14 Visible (0.62 µm) animation below (also available as a large 62 Mbyte animated GIF) showed the development of severe thunderstorms in Montana and Wyoming, which produced several reports of damaging winds and large hail (up to 4.0 inches in diameter). This example is particularly noteworthy due to the fact that the storm was well-sampled by satellite imagery in a region of poor radar coverage (h/t to @DanLindsey77). For additional details on this case, see the VISIT Meteorological Interpretation Blog.

GOES-14 Visible (0.62 µm) images, with surface reports and SPC storm reports of hail (yellow) and wind (cyan) [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.62 µm) images, with surface reports and SPC storm reports of hail (yellow) and wind (cyan) [click to play MP4 animation]

A 3-panel comparison of Visible images from GOES-15 and GOES-13 (available at the routine 15-30 minute interval) and GOES-14 (available at 1-minute intervals) is shown below.

GOES-13 (left), GOES-14 (center) and GOES-13 (right) 0.62 um Visible images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-13 (left), GOES-14 (center) and GOES-13 (right) 0.62 um Visible images [click to play MP4 animation]

During the early afternoon hours, the GOES-15 (GOES-West) satellite performed a “North/South Station Keeping maneuver”, during which there was no imaging between 1700-1900 UTC. To help cover for this outage, the GOES-13 (GOES-East) satellite was paced into Full Disk scan mode, which provided only 1 image every 30 minutes. During this time period, the 1-minute imagery from GOES-14 (shown below) was essential to monitor such features as a wildfire burning southeast of Ely, Nevada (station identifier KELY). Two apparent flare-ups of the fire were seen in the areal coverage of the hottest pixels (red) on GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images at 1805 UTC and 1807 UTC, which were not captured by the 30-minute GOES-13 imagery. In fact, the 1745 UTC GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared image suggested that there was a brief reduction in the intensity of the fire (indicated by a lack of red pixels), which was not the case according to the 1-minute GOES-14 imagery.

GOES-15 (left panels), GOES-14 (center panels) and GOES-13 (right panels) 0.62 m Visible and 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 (left panels), GOES-14 (center panels) and GOES-13 (right panels) 0.62 m Visible (top) and 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared (bottom) images [click to play animation]

Hurricane Earl makes landfall in Belize

August 4th, 2016
GOES-14 10.7 µm Infrared Window images, hourly from 0115 through 1015 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to play animation]

GOES-14 10.7 µm Infrared Window images, hourly from 0115 through 1015 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to play animation]

Hurricane Earl made landfall around 0600 UTC on 4 August in Belize. The hourly animation from GOES-14, above, shows a rapid warming of the coldest cloud tops over Earl after landfall, as commonly happens. GOES-14 is out of storage to support SRSO-R Operations beginning Tuesday August 9.

The GOES-14 image at landfall shows coldest cloud tops on the north side of the storm. A timely Metop-A overpass (times available at this site) from several hours before landfall provided ASCAT winds, below, that also show strongest winds to the north side of this storm.

Metop-A ASCAT Scatterometer Winds, 0238 UTC 4 August 2016 [click to enlarge]

Metop-A ASCAT Scatterometer Winds, 0238 UTC 4 August 2016 [click to click to enlarge]

Although the strong winds of Earl have diminished now that the storm is over land, Total Precipitable Water values, below, (showing MIRS data, available at this site) remain high and flooding continues to be a threat. Earl is forecast to move along the southern tip of the Bay Campeche starting tomorrow. For more details see the National Hurricane Center website.

Morphed MIRS Total Precipitable Water, 0600 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to enlarge]

Morphed MIRS Total Precipitable Water, 0600 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to click to enlarge]

Three geostationary satellites viewed Earl as it moved across the southern Yucatan peninsula. GOES-15, GOES-14 and GOES-13 visible imagery from near 1200 UTC is shown below.

GOES-15, GOES-14, GOES-13 (left, center,right) Visible Imagery of Earl over Belize and Mexico, ~1200 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to enlarge]

GOES-15, GOES-14, GOES-13 (left, center,right) Visible Imagery of Earl over Belize and Mexico, ~1200 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to click to enlarge]

Two Geostationary Satellites viewing a system approximately equidistant from both satellites allowed for stereoscopic imagery to be created, below.

GOES-13 and GOES-14 Visible Imagery (0.62 µm), 1415 - 2115 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to play animation]

GOES-13 and GOES-14 Visible Imagery (0.62 µm), 1415 – 2115 UTC on 4 August 2016 [click to play animation]

GOES-14 is out of Storage

August 1st, 2016

 

GIA14_01AUG2016_20N_85W_UPDATE

GOES-14 Imager Channels at 1755 UTC on 1 August 2016 [Click to enlarge]

GOES-14 has again been reactivated, and is distributing data from its location over the Equator at 105 W. GOES-14 will be entering SRSO-R mode next week, starting on 9 August (link) and continuing through 26 August.

Short animations of GOES-14 Visible (0.63 um) and Infrared Window (10.7 um) imagery are shown below.

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 um) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 um) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 um) images [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Infrared Window (10.7 um) images [click to play animation]

A 3-panel comparison, below, shows Idaho/Montana wildfire smoke plumes as viewed from GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-14 and GOES-13 (GOES-East). The images are displayed in the native projection of each satellite.

GOES-15 (left), GOES-14 (center) and GOES-13 (right) Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 (left), GOES-14 (center) and GOES-13 (right) Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

Dry trade wind surge approaches Hawai’i

July 2nd, 2016

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

The MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (above) showed the westward movement of a surge of dry trade winds toward Hawai’i during the 28 June – 01 July 2016 period. This push of dry air was being driven by a large area of high pressure centered about 1200 miles northeast of the island chain. A very sharp gradient in TPW existed along the leading edge of the dry surge, with values of 50-55 mm (2.0-2.2 inches) ahead of the boundary dropping to as low as 20-25 mm (0.8-1.0 inch) behind it.

GOES-15 (GOES-West) Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) revealed a sharp contrast in cloudiness east of Hawai’i on 29 June, with far fewer and much smaller marine boundary layer cloud elements seen in the dry air east of the leading edge of the trade wind surge.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

On the following day (30 June), GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed a vast expanse of small closed-cell convective clouds in the marine boundary layer — a signature of a stable air mass; in this case, due to strong low-level subsidence — extending to distances as far as 1000 miles east and northeast of Hawai’i.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to play animation]

The progression of the leading edge of the dry trade wind surge could also be followed on daily composites of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from 26-30 June, as viewed using RealEarth (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color composite images [click to play animation]

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color composite images [click to play animation]

Skew-T diagrams of rawinsonde data from the 2 upper air sites in Hawai’i (Hilo PHTO, and Lihue PHLI) are shown below. At Hilo on the Big Island of Hawai’i, the height of the trade wind temperature inversion descended from the typical height of 5500-6000 feet (near the 850 hPa pressure level) on 30 June to an unusually-low height of around 2500 feet (near the 930 hPa pressure level) at 12 UTC on 01 July. Farther to the west at Lihue on the island of Kaua’i, the dry trade wind surge was just beginning to arrive around the time of the 12 UTC sounding on 01 July — a sharpening of and a slight lowering of the trade wind inversion could be seen in comparison to the earlier 00 UTC sounding.

Hilo, Hawai'i rawinsonde reports [click to enlarge]

Hilo, Hawai’i rawinsonde reports [click to enlarge]

Lihue, Hawai'i rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

Lihue, Hawai’i rawinsonde data [click to enlarge]

As the strong trade wind flow interacted with the terrain of the islands, areas of high wind gusts were observed — for example, 36 knots (41 mph) at Bradshaw Army Air Field on the Big Island of Hawai’i. In addition, the dew point temperature at that site was as low as 21º F within an hour after that peak wind gust on the afternoon of 01 July.