A deepening area of low pressure (21 UTC surface analysis) was moving northeastward across the Midwest region of the US on 09 April 2015; GOES-13 0.63 µm visible images combined with the Cloud-Top Cooling Rate and Overshooting Tops Detection products (above; click image to play animation) showed a line of severe thunderstorms which quickly developed along the associated cold frontal boundary as it moved eastward across Iowa and Missouri during the afternoon hours. Cloud-Top Cooling Rates with some of the storms in Missouri were in excess of 50º C per 15 minutes (violet color enhancement) during their early stage of development (18:25 UTC image).
A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 µm visible channel and 11.45 µm IR channel images at 18:51 UTC or 1:51 PM local time (below) showed that the line of thunderstorms was beginning to produce a number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes.
Focusing our attention on eastern Iowa and northern Illinois — where there were widespread reports of large hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes (SPC storm reports) — the organization of large, discrete supercell thunderstorms can be seen on GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click image to play animation), which exhibited numerous overshooting tops.
The corresponding GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed that the coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperatures were -67º C (darker black enhancement).
The NOAA/CIMSS ProbSevere product (below; click image to play animation) gauges the likelihood of a storm first producing severe weather (of any kind) within the next 60 minutes. It combines information about the environment (Most Unstable CAPE, Environmental Shear) from the Rapid Refresh Model, information about the growing cloud (Vertical Growth Rate as a percentage of the troposphere per minute and Glaciation Rate, also as a percentage per minute), and Maximum Expected Hail Size (MESH) from the MRMS. In this event, the ProbSevere product performed well for the storm that spawned the EF-4 tornado, although due to the cloudiness of the satellite scene the ProbSevere model was unable to diagnose vertical growth rate and glaciation rate (which diminished the potential lead-time). Below is a chronological timeline of events for that storm:
2308 UTC: first ProbSevere > 50%
2310 UTC: first ProbSevere > 70%
2311 UTC: NWS Severe T-Storm Warning
2312 UTC: ProbSevere = 88%
2323 UTC: 1.00″ hail 2 SE Dixson (15 min lead-time for ProbSevere@50, 13 min for ProbSevere@70, 12 min for NWS Svr Warning)
2335 UTC: NWS Tornado Warning (ProbSevere = 94%)
2340 UTC: Tornado report 2 NE Franklin Grove
In spite of widespread cloudiness, the GOES-13 Sounder single-field-of-view Lifted Index (LI), Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Total Precipitable Water (TPW) derived product images (below) were able to portray that the air mass in the warm sector of the low ahead of the strong cold front was was both unstable — LI values of -4 to -8º C (yellow to red color enhancement) and CAPE values of 3000-4000 J/kg (yellow to red color enhancement) — and rich in moisture, with TPW values of 30-40 mm or 1.2 to 1.6 inches (yellow to red color enhancement).
On the following day (10 April), it was cloud-free as the Landsat-8 satellite passed over northern Illinois at 16:41 UTC or 11:41 AM local time — and the 30.2 mile long southwest-to-northeast oriented tornado damage path that produced EF-4 damage and was responsible for 2 fatalities and 22 injuries (NWS Chicago event summary) was evident on 15-meter resolution Band 8 0.59 µm panchromatic visible images viewed using the SSEC RealEarth web map server (below). An aerial survey of part of the tornado damage path can be seen here.
A Landsat-8 false-color image (using Bands 6/5/4 as Red/Green/Blue) is shown below. The 2 tornado-related fatalities occurred in Fairdale.
On a side note, in the cold (northwestern) sector of the low it was cold enough for the precipitation type to be snow — and up to 4 inches of snow fell in western Iowa. GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed the swath of snow cover as it rapidly melted during the daytime hours on 10 April.
In fact, the swath of snow cover across eastern Nebraska and western/northern Iowa was also evident on a Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) image at 08:49 UTC or 3:39 AM local time (below), highlighting the “visible image at night” capability of the DNB (given ample illumination from the Moon).
Using the GOES-R Cloud Top Cooling Rate product (applied to GOES-13 data), the Storm Prediction Center issued a Mesoscale Discussion (above) highlighting the risk of strong thunderstorms producing hail and/or strong wind gusts over parts of the Georgia/South Carolina border region on 17 September 2014. According to the SPC storm reports, there was hail up to 1.0 inch in diameter in addition to some tree and power line damage in southern South Carolina.
AWIPS II image combinations of the Cloud Top Cooling (CTC) rate product (colors) and the GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel gray-scale images (below; click image to play animation) showed that CTC rate values for the storm north of Augusta, Georgia (KAGS) at 19:00 UTC were as high as -16º C per 15 minutes; at 19:15 UTC, the CTC rate value for that storm was as high as -39º C per 15 minutes. The first Severe Thunderstorm Warning for this storm was later issued at 19:34 UTC.GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images (below; click image to play animation) showed the rapidly cooling cloud-top IR brightness temperatures associated with these thunderstorms as they moved southeastward and intensified: the coldest value for the aforementioned thunderstorm was -40º C at 19:00 UTC, dropping to -62º C by 20:45 UTC. About an hour later, another Severe Thunderstorm Warning was issued at 20:30 UTC for a storm near and south of Orangeburg, South Carolina (KOGB).
An unusually intense (by early October standards) mid-latitude cyclone produced a variety of weather extremes across the parts of the north-central US during the 04 October to 05 October 2013 period. In the cold sector of the storm system, western South Dakota received record-breaking snowfall and prolonged blizzard conditions (NWS Rapid City news story), with widespread power outages and livestock losses being two of the major impacts. The early evolution of the storm could be seen on 4-km resolution GOES-13 6.5 Âµm water vapor channel images (above; click image to play animation). Surface weather symbols (including precipitation type) are also plotted on the water vapor images. The GOES-13 satellite had been placed into Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) mode during much of this time, providing images as frequently as every 5-10 minutes.
In the warm sector of the storm system, severe thunderstorms produced numerous tornadoes and hail as large as 2.75 inches in diameter (SPC storm reports), primarily across eastern Nebraska into Iowa. A very large tornado produced EF-4 damage in the Wayne, Nebraska area — the development of this storm could be seen on 1-km resolution 0.63 Âµm visible channel images (above; click image to play animation) and 4-km resolution 10.7 Âµm IR channel images (below; click image to play animation) from the GOES-15 (GOES-West) and GOES-13 (GOES-East) satellite perspectives. Wayne (station identifier KLCG) is located in the center of the visible and IR images; note that the hourly plotted weather observations for Wayne disappeared after 22 UTC, due to the fact that the airport weather instruments were damaged by the tornado (NWS Omaha news story).
GOES-13 0.63 Âµm visible channel images with overlays of the corresponding University of Wisconsin GOES-13 IR Cloud Top Cooling Rate (CTCR) product (below; click image to play animation) indicated that CTCR values exceeded 30 degrees Kelvin per 15 minutes (darker blue color enhancement) at 20:45 UTC as the thunderstorm that produced the Wayne tornado was rapidly developing in northeastern Nebraska.
===== 07 October Update =====
High spatial resolution imagery from low Earth orbit (LEO) or “polar-orbiting” satellites can be useful for post-case analysis — with this particular storm, helping to determine the areal coverage of the resulting snowfall, and identifying a tornado damage path.
Once the large cloud shield associated with the storm system moved eastward, a comparison of 375-meter resolution (projected onto a 1-km AWIPS grid) Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.64 Âµm visible channel and false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from 06 October (above) showed the widespread area of snow cover (which appeared as darker shades of red on the RGB image) over the western third of South Dakota as well as adjacent portions of Wyoming, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Montana. Terrain had an important influence in both the amount and the coverage of snowfall — it is especially interesting to note the areas of bare ground (shades of cyan in the RGB image) immediately downwind (south and southwest) of the Black Hills, where downsloping winds helped keep the precipitation type as rain (AWIPS-2 animation including topography). Aided by upslope flow, as much as 58 inches of snowfall was reported in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota. Note that much of the Black Hills appear darker on the visible and false-color images, due to the high density of coniferous trees — but there was still significant snow cover on the ground.
In addition, a comparison of before (28 September) and after (07 October) 250-meter resolution MODIS true-color RGB images from the SSEC MODIS Today site (below) revealed the southwest-to-northeast oriented damage path from the large tornado which produced EF-4 damage in the Wayne, Nebraska area (NWS Omaha news story).