The corresponding GOES-13 infrared (10.7 µm) images (below; click image to play animation) showed that cloud-top IR brightness temperatures were as cold a -53º C (orange color enhancement) at 1915 UTC.The volcanic cloud features were also easily tracked on GOES-13 water vapor (6.5 µm) images (below; click image to play animation). In fact, note how the signature in the water vapor imagery is more distinctly seen for a longer period of time than on the 10.7 µm infrared imagery. The tan-colored volcanic ash cloud was also evident on Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) imagery (below), as viewed using the SSEC RealEarth web map server. A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS visible (0.64 µm) and infrared (11.45 µm) images is shown below (courtesy of William Straka, SSEC). The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature was -72.7º C.
The Kuchinoerabu-jima volcano in Japan experienced a violent eruption beginning around 00:59 UTC on 29 May 2015 — the expanding volcanic cloud was captured by 0.5-km resolution Himawari-8 AHI 0.64 µm visible channel images (above; click image to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file). A mid-layer volcanic cloud was seen moving to the west-northwest, while a high-altitude plume spread out as it moved east-southeastward.
About an hour after the eruption, Terra MODIS products at 0205 UTC from the SSEC Volcanic Cloud Monitoring site are shown below. Retrieved volcanic Ash Probabilities were very high for both cloud segments; for the southeastern cloud segment, the maximum volcanic Ash Height was in the 10-12 km range, volcanic Ash Loading was high, and the largest Ash Effective Radius values were in the 8-10 um range.
With the arrival of daylight at 1215 UTC, a portion of the volcanic cloud could be seen at times (although identification was difficult with widespread meteorological clouds present in the area).
An Aqua MODIS false-color Red/Gren/Blue (RGB) image at 0800 UTC (below; courtesy of Michael Pavolonis, NOAA/NESDIS/CIMSS) displayed a signal of SO2 (green enhancement) along the edges of the larger volcanic cloud as it was moving southward.
GOES-13 10.7 µm IR channel images (below; click to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) indicated that the coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature of -65º C appeared at 1015 UTC with the larger plume moving south-southwestward.According to the nearby San Cristobal rawinsonde report at 12 UTC, the altitude of the -65º C temperature was around 14 km, at the 157 hPa pressure level. The tropopause for this sounding was coded to be at 16.1 km or 109.0 hPa, where the air temperature was -80.7º C.
The latest advisories issued by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center can be found here.
The Kilauwea Volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i began erupting in March 2008 (blog post | USGS reference), and has been in a nearly continuous phase of activity since then. During the pre-dawn hours of 28 April 2015, thermal signatures of the Kilauwea summit lava lake and nearby lava flows could be seen on McIDAS-V images of 10-minute interval Himawari-8 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (above; click image to play animation). The dark black pixels represent the hottest IR brightness temperatures.
On the corresponding Himawari-8 2.3 µm near-IR channel images (below; click image to play animation), the clusters of bright white pixels represent the glow of the hot lava features.
A different view is provided by the polar-orbiting Suomi NPP satellite — a comparison of AWIPS II images of VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR data (below) revealed the locations of the hottest lava features (black to yellow to red color enhancement) at 11:40 UTC (1:40 am local time).
A longer animation using GOES-15 (GOES-West) 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (below; click image to play animation) showed considerable temporal fluctuation in the location and intensity of the hot lava pixels (black to yellow to red color enhancement). For the latest information on the Kilauea eruption, visit the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.