Lava flows continue from Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone

June 18th, 2018 |

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images (above) showed signatures of the ongoing lava flows from the Lower East Rift Zone of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i at 1225 UTC (2:25 am local time) on 18 June 2018.

Note how the central ribbon of hottest lava flow (which continues its active ocean entry) saturated the I04 3.75 µm image, causing a “wrap-around” effect to display cold brightness temperatures (white pixels) — although the M13 4.05 µm band has a lower spatial resolution, it saturates at much higher temperatures, and sensed brightness temperatures in the 480 to 557 K range. The Infrared images also showed evidence of steam clouds flowing southward over the adjacent offshore waters.

A webcam image from near Kapoho (PGcam) around the time of the NOAA-20 VIIRS images is shown below. The active Fissure 8 is near the center of the image.

Webcam image from near Kapoho [click to enlarge]

Webcam image from near Kapoho [click to enlarge]

VIIRS imagery and webcam capture courtesy of William Straka (CIMSS).

Lava flow from Kilauea in Hawai’i

June 6th, 2018 |

GOES-15 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-15 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

The Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i continued to be active into early June 2018 — and GOES-15 (GOES-West) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) imagery (above) showed the thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (black to yellow to red enhancement) associated with lava flows from active fissures in the East Rift Zone on 06 June.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images (below) showed clouds of steam from the East Rift Zone drifting to the south-southwest; a hazy plume of volcanic fog or “vog” was also evident, which was being transported farther to the southwest by the northeasterly trade wind flow.

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

A Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) image at 2307 UTC (below) showed clear skies over Kapoho on the eastern tip of the Big Island, with steam plumes from the active East Rift Zone fissures flowing southwestward.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm) image [click to enlarge]

The corresponding VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image (below) helped to discriminate between the hot brightness temperatures of recent (and old) lava flows and the cooler brightness temperatures exhibited by regions of vegetation.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image [click to enlarge]

A closer look at the Kilauea East Rift Zone (below) provided a detailed view of the recent lava flow and active fissures, including the lava field that entered and covered Kapoho Bay a few days earlier. Note the appearance of numerous multi-colored pixels in the center of the lava field — the 3.74 µm I04 band detectors on the VIIRS instrument saturate around 385 K, so the hottest lava features which exceeded that brightness temperature threshold ended up being displayed as cold pixels (the so-called “wrap-around” effect). There is a Moderate-resolution M13 band (4.05 µm) on VIIRS which saturates at a much hotter 700 K; while it is a lower spatial resolution (750 meters, vs 375 meters for the I04 band), the M13 band can be useful for sampling the actual temperature of very hot features such as lava flows or wildfires.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) image [click to enlarge]

Thanks to Jordan Gerth (CIMSS) and Eric Lau (NWS Pacific Region Headquarters) for providing the VIIRS imagery for this case.

Update: This link shows Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 imagery before and after the Kapoho Bay lava flow.

Eruption of the Fuego volcano in Guatemala

June 3rd, 2018 |

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface reports {click to play animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed that an explosive eruption of the Fuego volcano in Guatemala occurred just after 18 UTC on 03 June 2018. The height of the ash was estimated to be 50,000 feet.

The tan to light brown color of the ash cloud was evident on GOES-16 true-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images, as viewed using RealEarth (below).

GOES-16 true-color RGB images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 true-color RGB images [click to play animation]

On GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) imagery (below), note the appearance of a persistent thermal anomaly or “hot spot” at the summit of Fuego for about 5 hours prior to the explosive eruption. This thermal anomaly became apparent around 1300 UTC, after which time a low-level volcanic plume could be seen drifting northward.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface observations [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

16-panel composite of all ABI bands [click to play MP4 animation]

16-panel composite of all ABI bands [click to play MP4 animation]

 

Kilauea effects stretch to Guam

June 1st, 2018 |

Suomi-NPP Views of the eastern tip of the island of Hawai’i at 1155 UTC on 1 June 2018. VIIRS Day Night Band Visible (0.70) and Shortwave Infrared (3.75) and Longwave Infrared (11.45) (Click to enlarge)

Early on 1 June 2018, clear skies allowed an unobstructed view of the still-erupting Kilauea from Suomi-NPP. (Orbit paths from this link).   The image above steps through the Day Night Band 0.7 µm Visible Image, the 3.75 µm Shortwave Infrared, and the 11.45 µm Longwave Infrared. The warm signatures of the lava extend all the way into the ocean.


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Photo showing Volcanic Haze on the Island of Guam (photo courtesy Brandon Aydlett, NWS GUM)

On 30 May 2018, hazy skies were widespread over the Mariana Islands, haze that could be traced back to Hawaii. (The picture above looks northeast from Nimitz Hill on the island of Guam).

The visible imagery below shows a pall of haze entrenched within the tropical easterlies from south and west of Hawai’i all the way across the Pacific Basin to Guam — a distance of some 4000 miles! (Himawari imagery courtesy Brandon Aydlett, NWS GUM, where the National Weather Service day begins!)

Himawari-8 Band 3 (0.64 µm) Imagery on Wednesday 30 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)