Severe thunderstorms in the Dakotas, as viewed by 4 GOES

August 3rd, 2019 |

 

Visible images from GOES-17, GOES-15, GOES-14 and GOES-16, with SPC Storm Reports plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

Visible images from GOES-17, GOES-15, GOES-14 and GOES-16, with SPC Storm Reports plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

With GOES-14 undergoing its annual INR testing and evaluation, it afforded the ability to monitor features such as severe thunderstorms in the western Dakotas from 4 GOES — GOES-17 (GOES-West) at 137.2ºW, GOES-15 at 128ºW, GOES-14 at 105ºW and GOES-16 (GOES-East) at 75.2ºW longitude (above). These storms produced hail as large as 2.0 inches in diameter and damaging winds to 75 mph (SPC Storm Reports). The images are displayed in the native projection of each satellite.

Natural gas line explosion and fire in Kentucky

August 1st, 2019 |

GOES-16 Fire Temperature (top left), Fire Power (top right), Fire Area (bottom left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Fire Temperature (top left), Fire Power (top right), Fire Area (bottom left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) [click to play animation | MP4]

An explosion and fire along a natural gas pipeline occurred between Junction City and Moreland in central Kentucky on 01 August 2019 (media story 1 | media story 2). GOES-16 (GOES-East) Fire Temperature, Fire Power, Fire Area and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the thermal signature of the fire — the Fire Temperature peak of 2438.8 K occurred at 0536 UTC, with the maximum Fire Power of 1102.8 MW and the highest 3.9 µm brightness temperature of 103.6ºC occurring at 0526 UTC. More information on these GOES Fire Detection and Characterization Algorithm (FDCA) products can be found here.

In a corresponding comparison of GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below), thermal signatures were also seen in the Near-Infrared imagery — and a dim signature of this nighttime fire was even apparent in the Visible imagery! The surface observations from Danville Stuart Powell Field Airport are plotted in yellow; the winds were light, minimizing smoke dispersion — but note that the visibility briefly dropped from 10 miles to 7 miles at 07 UTC (possibly due to some smoke drifting over the airport). 

GOES-16 "Red" Visible (0.64 µm, top left), Near-Infrared "Snow/Ice" (1.61 µm, top right), Near-Infrared "Cloud Particle Size" (2.24 µm, bottom left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top left), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, top right), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, bottom left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) [click to play animation | MP4]

In a comparison of the 4-panel image sets at 0526 UTC (below), the higher spatial resolution of the 0.64 µm (0.5 km*) and 1.61 µm (1 km*) images helped to refine the actual location of the fire. [*at satellite sub-point]

GOES-16 4-panel images at 0526 UTC [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 4-panel images at 0526 UTC [click to enlarge]

With the higher spatial resolution of Suomi NPP VIIRS  and Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared imagery, the size and location of the fire’s thermal signature was more accurate when compared to GOES-16 (below). For example, even during the later stage of the fire at 0737 UTC, the VIIRS Shortwave Infrared brightness temperature was 32.0ºC, compared to only 17.9ºC with GOES-16.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm, top left), GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, top right), Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm, bottom left) and GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm, top left), GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, top right), Aqua MODIS Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm, bottom left) and GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom right) images [click to enlarge]

The bright glow of the fire was also evident in a Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image at 0651 UTC (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images, with city names and highways  [click to enlarge]

A thermal signature of the fire (darker red to black pixels) was also seen in GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below).

GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 is brought out of storage

July 31st, 2019 |

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 was brought out of storage on 31 July 2019, for its annual week of Image Navigation and Registration (INR) testing and a North/South station-keeping maneuver — the first few hours of Full Disk Visible (0.63 µm) images are shown above. The SSEC Satellite Data Services group was able to position a spare rooftop antenna to receive the GOES-14 data during this test.

A closer look at the southwestern portion of Hudson Bay (below) revealed a large and anomalously-late area of First-year ice off the coast of Ontario.

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Visible (0.63 µm) images [click to enlarge]

In addition to the Imager, the GOES-14 Sounder is also operating. Recall that the sounder provides 18 infrared spectral bands and one visible band (below). A combined image showing both the Sounder and Imager bands has been generated.

Sample GOES-14 multi-spectral image

GOES-14 Sounder mult-spectral animation from August 1, 2019 [click to play animation]

GOES-14 Sounder imagery are being posted in near real-time during this annual test.

===== 01 August Update =====

GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-14 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) revealed the warm thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (darker red to black pixels) resulting from a natural gas explosion and fire in central Kentucky on 01 August (blog post).

Carr Fire in northern California

August 11th, 2018 |
GOES-15, GOES-14, GOES-17 and GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-15, GOES-14, GOES-17 and GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non=operational *

A comparison of GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-14, GOES-17 and GOES-16 (GOES-East) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (dark black to red pixels) associated with the Carr Fire in northern California on 11 August 2018. A GOES-16 Mesoscale Domain Sector was providing images at 1-minute intervals. This comparison demonstrates how fire detection can be affected by both satellite viewing angle and shortwave infrared detector spatial resolution (4 km at satellite sub-point for the GOES-14/15 Imager, vs 2 km for the GOES-16/17 ABI).

A toggle between 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color and Thermal Infrared (10.9 µm) imagery viewed using RealEarth (below) showed new fire activity (clusters of red pixels) along the northeastern edge of the Carr Fire burn scar on the False Color image, as well as smoke plumes drifting northeastward; the heat signatures (brighter white pixels) of smaller fires hidden by the smoke were more clearly ssen on the Thermal Infrared image. As of this date the Carr Fire was the 8th largest and 6th most destructive fire on record in California, and was responsible for 8 fatalities.

Landsat-8 False Color and Thermal Infrared (10.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color and Thermal Infrared (10.9 µm) images [click to enlarge]