A better view of the offshore ice (as well as the ice in central Hudson Bay, northeast of the aforementioned mesoscale low) was provided by Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color images, visulized using the SSEC RealEarth web map server (below). In the false-color image, snow cover and ice appear as darker shades of cyan.A comparison of Canadian Ice Service analyses from 16 November and 23 November (below) showed the growth of the offshore ice along the western and northwestern edges of Hudson Bay, as well as the larger area of ice growing southward in the central portion of Hudson Bay during that 1-week period. The departure from normal images at the bottom indicated that ice concentration along the western and northwestern edges was well below normal (red), while the concentration of the large area of ice in central Hudson Bay was greater than normal (blue).
*Update #2: * **Effective immediately; all the GOES-13 (GOES-East)
sounding products are ceased to produce and stop distribution as we are
experiencing an anomaly with the sounder instrument. Engineers are
investigating the problem. We will inform you when we resume our normal
*Update #1: * GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder IR Data Outage
*Topic:* GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder IR Data Products Outage
*Date/Time**Issued:*November 20, 2015 1955Z*
*Product(s) or Data Impacted:*
GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder data
Blended Hydrometorological Products – Blended TPW
Microwave AWIPS Products – Blended TPW
Microwave McIDAS Products – Blended TPW
GOES Gridded Cloud Product
GOES VARiable data
AFEP/Ingestor – GOES
Single Field of View BUFR
Single Field of View SDPI for AWIPS
Single Field of View TPW
Sounding ASOS SCSP
*Date/Time of Initial Impact:*November 20, 2015 0922Z **
*Date/Time of Expected End:* TBD
*Length of Outage:* TBD
*Details/Specifics of Change:*GOES-13 (GOES-East) Sounder instrumentis experiencing an anomaly. Engineers are investigating the problem. GOES-13 Sounder IR data is not available. **Effective immediately all the GOES-13 (GOES-East) sounding products are ceased to produce and stop distribution as we are experiencing an anomaly with the sounder instrument. Engineers are investigating the problem. We will inform you when we will resume our normal operations.
The Storm Prediction Center has revised its criteria for initiating GOES Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) calls. Previously, RSO was automatically activated when a Moderate Risk (MDT) appeared in the SPC Day 1 Convective Outlook. On October 1st that was changed per a September email from SPC:
Starting October 1, the SPC Lead Forecaster will contact the NCO/SDM to request GOES RSO whenever a Day 1 Convective Outlook includes an ENH Risk area. Data from the first six months of 2015 suggests SPC would request RSO on approximately 10-20 more days compared to the current MDT Risk criterion. Activating RSO on a more frequent basis using the ENH Risk criterion would improve NWS forecaster situational awareness on convectively active days and help prepare users for much higher temporal frequency GOES-R data.
An Enhanced Risk was issued on 11 November 2015 as a strong extratropical cyclone was developing over the midsection of the country. The image above shows the GOES-13 Water vapor imagery from 1145 UTC on 11 November. A strong jet extends from the southwestern United States northeastward. On the previous day (10 November, at 12 UTC) Albuquerque reported 135-knot winds at 300 hPa (and no winds at all at 200 hPa as the balloon was lost to the tracker); at 00 UTC on 11 November, winds were 162 knots just above the 250 hPa level. Strong veering, indicating warm advection, is apparent over the mid-Mississippi River Valley. Low-level warm advection is forecast to increase as the extratropical cyclone intensifies.
Update: GOES-East began RSO at 1545 UTC on 11 November 2015 — a few image animations are shown below.Of particular interest on 6.5 µm water vapor imagery, above, was the tightly-wrapped signature of the middle-tropospheric vorticity center moving northeastward along the Kansas/Nebraska border. The 10.7 µm Infrared images, above, showed the development of thunderstorms across Iowa which exhibited cloud-top IR brightness temperatures in the -50 to -60º C range (yellow to red color enhancement). Hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes were produced by these areas of deep convection (SPC storm reports). 3.9 µm Shortwave Infrared images, above, displayed numerous “hot spots” (black to yellow to red color enhancement) due to fire activity in parts of northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas. Finally, 0.63 µm Visible channel images, above, showed the hazy signature of smoke plumes from these Kansas/Oklahoma fires (along with a separate plume of blowing dust). In addition, as clouds cleared along the western edge of the storm, swaths of fresh snow cover could be seen over portions of Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. As much as 12.5 inches of snow was reported in northeastern Colorado, with wind gusts of 75 mph creating blizzard conditions.
GOES-13 Visible Imagery, above, shows Tropical Storm Kate northeast of the Bahamas late in the day on 9 November. The storm is over a region of warm sea surface temperatures, below (imagery from the CIMSS Tropical Weather Site), in an environment of low shear. RapidScat winds show winds between 35 and 40 knots to the northeast of the storm center. The projected path is also shown, paralleling the East Coast before moving out to sea. The path takes the storm north of Bermuda as well.
Suomi NPP viewed the storm as well, shortly after noon on 9 November. The Visible (0.64 µm), near-infrared (1.61 µm) and 11.35 µm imagery are shown below. The 1.61 imagery shows darker returns over ice clouds because of absorption at that wavelength. The extensive cirrus shield over Kate’s convection (and along the East Coast is association with frontal system) is readily apparent. Water-based clouds, in contrast, are bright white in both the visible and near-infrared channels.
ASCAT winds from 0230 UTC on 10 November (below) also show strongest winds on the northern and eastern sides of the storm.
Kate was upgraded to a minimal Hurricane at 0900 UTC on 11 November.