GOES-13 (GOES-East) 0.63 µm visible channel and 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel images (above; click image to play animation) showed signals of a brief eruption (video 1 | video 2) of the Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico on 17 June 2013. A volcanic ash plume can be seen drifting southwestward on the visible images, and a warm thermal anomaly (black to red color enhancement) appear on the shortwave IR images. According to an advisory issued by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, the maximum height of the ash was expected to be around 28,000 feet.
The GOES-14 satellite was placed into Super Rapid Scan Operations for GOES-R (SRSOR) mode to monitor the development of severe weather over a rare SPC High Risk region on 12 June 2013. In SRSOR mode, images were available at 1-minute intervals (compared to the routine 15-minute image interval). The development of numerous large thunderstorms can be seen on GOES-14 SRSOR 0.63 µm visible channel images (above; click image to play animation; also available as a QuickTime movie). These storms produced tornadoes, large hail, and damaging winds across parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois (SPC storm reports). One item of interest revealed on the 1-minute imagery was the appearance of “feeder band” clouds that were flowing into the western edge of the large thunderstorm located over northeastern Iowa during the 20:15 – 20:58 time period; without the 1-minute temporal resolution, such subtle mesoscale features would be difficult if not impossible to identify on conventional 15-minute imagery. Numerous overshooting tops could also be seen on some of the larger storms.
During the SRSOR period, there were breaks in the 1-minute interval coverage to allow for tasks such as satellite “station-keeping” – and the longest break occurred between 19:41 UTC and 20:15 UTC (below). You can see that during this particular 34-minute period, considerable convective development occurred in areas such as northwestern Illinois. With current Routine GOES scanning schedules, there is a similar 30-minute gap in coverage over the Continental US (CONUS) which occurs every 3 hours during a full disk scan of the Earth. It is important to note that with the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument on the next-generation GOES-R satellite there will be no such long gaps in the imagery — in fact, during high-impact weather events such as this one, images will be available over special mesoscale sectors every 30 seconds.
The GOES-13 sounder Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) derived product (below; click image to play animation) showed that there was considerable instability (CAPE values of 4000-5000 J/kg, violet color enhancement) that developed during the afternoon hours across much of southeastern Iowa and northern Illinois, in the warm sector of the area of low pressure that was developing over northeastern Iowa.
Now that GOES-13 is the operational GOES-East satellite again, we have a view that covers the far eastern Atlantic Ocean into the far northwestern portion of Africa. The hazy signature of an outbreak of Saharan Air Layer (SAL) dust streaming off the African coast is evident of GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (above).
The CIMSS SAL product (below; click image to play animation) also indicated that a strong outbreak of dust was moving westward across the Atlantic Ocean.
GOES-13 became the operational GOES-East satellite once again at 15:45 UTC on 10 June 2013 (following recovery from an anomaly on 22 May) — the multi-panel image above shows all 19 bands of the GOES-13 Sounder along with all 5 bands of the GOES-13 Imager at that time.
The images below show the GOES Sounder 7.4 µm water vapor channel data using AWIPS, and the footprint change from GOES-14 at 14:46 UTC to GOES-13 at 15:46 UTC is obvious.
A comparison of all 19 bands of the Sounder instrument on GOES-14 and GOES-13 (below) shows some improvement in noise in a few of the bands (due to an “outgas” procedure being performed on the GOES-13 Sounder during recovery from the anomaly).
The transition from GOES-14 to GOES-13 is also shown above, using McIDAS images of 0.63 µm visible channel data from the Imager instrument. Once again, the image perspective is different, due to the fact that GOES-14 is positioned over the Equator at 105 W longitude, and GOES-13 is at 75 West longitude. This difference in satellite viewing perspective is very apparent when comparing the Full Disk views of 0.63 µm visible channel images from GOES-14 at 14:45 UTC and GOES-13 at 17:45 UTC (below).