Ice Remaining on the Great Lakes

April 16th, 2014

Suomi/NPP VIIRS Day Night Band imagery, 0740 UTC on 16 April 2014 [Click to enlarge]

Suomi/NPP VIIRS Day Night Band imagery, 0740 UTC on 16 April 2014 [Click to enlarge]

Mostly clear skies over the Great Lakes and a near-Full Moon allowed the Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) imager to record the remaining extent of ice on the five Great Lakes with remarkable clarity at night.

Portions of Georgian Bay (Lake Huron), Green Bay (Lake Michigan) and southeastern Lake Superior continue to be ice-covered. Ice also remains in eastern Lake Erie, over northeastern Lake Michigan, and in parts of Lake Huron. Lake Ontario and Lake St. Clair are ice-free.

Daytime VIIRS DNB image (19:23 UTC on 15 April) and Nighttime VIIRS DNB image (07:40 UTC on 16 April)

Daytime VIIRS DNB image (19:23 UTC on 15 April) and Nighttime VIIRS DNB image (07:40 UTC on 16 April)

Taking a closer look at Lake Superior (above), it is interesting to compare the previous daytime VIIRS DNB image (at 19:23 UTC on 15 April) with the subsequent nighttime DNB image about 17 hours later (at 07:40 UTC on 16 April):

(1)  You can ascertain changes in the ice motion and areal coverage, even at night

(2) The later 16 April image showed that far northern portions of the Lake Superior ice had become snow-covered (exhibiting a brighter white appearance), after a weak disturbance brought small bands of lake-effect snow over that area (GOES-13 10.7 µm IR image animation). Even though the MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product showed that SST values over the open waters of northern Lake Superior were only in the low 30′s F, surface reports on the GOES-13 IR image animation indicated that the air moving across those waters in the wake of the weak disturbance was significantly colder. This fresh snow cover could have an impact on the ice melting rate in those areas.

Fatal wildfire in Valparaíso, Chile

April 13th, 2014
GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel images

GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel images

Strong winds helped a wildfire to spread very quickly through a portion of the city of Valparaíso, Chile — this fire forced large-scale evacuations, destroyed around 2000 homes, and was responsible for 12 fatalities. McIDAS images of 4-km resolution GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel data (above) showed the fire “hot spot” (black to red color enhancement), which began late in the day on 12 April 2014, and burned through the night and into the day on 13 April. The hottest 3.9 µm IR brightness temperatures were 339.6 K (66.45º C) at 20:45 UTC and 340.8 K (67.65º C) at 23:45 UTC on 12 April.

Since the GOES-13 satellite only performs one full-disk scan (hence imaging the Southern Hemisphere) every 3 hours, the temporal behavior of this fire cannot be well ascertained. The ABI instrument on the future GOES-R satellite will perform a full-disk scan every 5 minutes.

Comparisons of 1-km resolution GOES-13 visible channel images and 4-km resolution GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (below) showed that the narrow fire smoke plume spread rapidly to the northwest.

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel (left) and 3.9 µm shortwave channel images (right)

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel (left) and 3.9 µm shortwave channel images (right)

——————————————————————————————————–

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR image

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR image

A 375-meter resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm (Band I4) shortwave IR image at 05:41 UTC (above) showed greater detail of the wildfire hot spot, which exhibited a maximum IR brightness temperature of 367.0 K (93.85º C). 367 K is actually the saturation temperature for the VIIRS Band I4 detectors, indicating that this was a very hot fire. Valparaiso is located about 112 km or 70 miles west-northwest of Santiago, Chile (station identifier SCEL).

By comparison, the 4-km resolution GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR image close to that time (below) indicated that the maximum IR brightness temperature of the wildfire hot spot was only 316.5 K (43.35º C).

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR channel image (left) and GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel image (right)

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR channel image (left) and GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel image (right)

McIDAS-V images of VIIRS 3.9 µm (Band M15) shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band (DNB) data (below; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS/SSEC) revealed that the large fire hot spot (yellow to red color enhancement on the shortwave IR image) was adjacent to and encroaching upon the bright night-time city lights of the Valparaiso area (as seen on the Day/Night Band image). In addition, ample illumination from a nearly-full Moon allowed the smoke plume to be seen on the DNB image, as it drifted northwestward over the adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.9 µm shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.9 µm shortwave IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images

Fires had been burning in parts of Chile since January 2014. Additional information on this Valparaíso fire can be found on the Wildfire Today site.

Grassland fires in Kansas

April 12th, 2014
GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images (click to play animation)

Numerous grassland fires began to burn across parts of eastern Kansas (and also extreme northeastern Oklahoma) during the afternoon hours on 11 April 2014. AWIPS images of 4-km resolution GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR channel data (above; click image to play animation) showed that many of these fires continued to burn into the overnight hours — the largest and most intense fire “hot spot” (black to yellow to red color enhancment) was seen northwest of Emporia, Kansas (station identifier KEMP) at 06:40 UTC or 1:40 AM local time, which exhibited an IR brightness temperature of 40º C. Smoke from these fires reduced the surface visibility as low as 2 miles at Manhattan (KMHK) and 4 miles at Topeka (KTOP). However, as high cirrus clouds began to move over the region later in the night and toward dawn, identification of the fire hot spots on GOES imagery became more difficult.

A comparison of 1-km resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm and 4-km resolution GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images just after 07 UTC or 2 AM local time (below) demonstrated the advantage of higher spatial resolution for detecting not only the locations of many of the smaller fire hot spots, but also for providing a more accurate value of the intensity of the larger, hotter fires; in this case, the highest IR brightness temperature of the larger fire northwest of Emporia on the VIIRS image was 50.5º C (red color enhancement), compared to only 22.5º C (darker black color enhancement) on the GOES-13 image.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm and GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 3.74 µm and GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR images

Since these fires were burning at night, they also exhibited bright signatures on the 0.7 µm Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) image; lights from cities and towns also appeared as bright spots on the DNB image, but a comparison with the corresponding VIIRS 3.74 µm shortwave IR image helped to identify which could be attributed to actively burning fires (below).

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR images

Suomi NPP VIIRS 0.7 µm Day/Night Band and 3.74 µm shortwave IR images

As mentioned above, high cirrus clouds moving over the region later in the night made fire hot spot identification more difficult on the 4-km resolution GOES-13 shortwave IR imagery. However, a 1-km resolution POES AVHRR 3.74 µm shortwave IR image at 11:50 UTC or 6:50 AM local time (below) was able to detect a number of fire hot spots (darker black pixels) through the cirrus cloud features.

POES AVHRR 3.74 µm shortwave IR image

POES AVHRR 3.74 µm shortwave IR image

Tehuano wind event

April 8th, 2014
GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)

As we have seen a number of times during the Winter 2013/2014 season, another strong Tehuano wind event occurred on 08 April 2014. McIDAS images of GOES-13 0.63 µm visible channel data (above; click image to play animation) showed distinct arc clouds marking the leading edge of 2 pulses of gap winds emerging southward over the Gulf of Tehuantepec. The second (later) pulse of gap winds appeared to be stronger, and transported plumes of blowing dust to the south.

A timely overpass of a Metop polar-orbiting satellite provided ASCAT surface scaterometer winds which showed the fanning out of the Tehuano flow at 16:20 UTC (below). An advisory for the development of Storm Force winds had been issued by the NOAA Ocean Prediction Center for the Gulf of Tehuantepec.

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR image with Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR image with Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds

MADIS 1-hour interval satellite winds (below; click image to play animation) tracked the velocity of the arc cloud and dust plumes during the day, which were moving at speeds up to 30 knots.

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR images with MADIS 1-hour satellite winds (click to play animation)

GOES-13 10.7 µm IR images with MADIS 1-hour satellite winds (click to play animation)

Past cases of well-defined Tehuano wind events can be found here.