GOES-16 daytime and nighttime images of the West Mims Fire in Georgia

April 25th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Blue Visible (0.47 µm, top), Red Visible (0.64 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) images, with hourly surface plots in yellow [click to play animation]

GOES-16 “Blue” Visible (0.47 µm, top), “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) images, with hourly surface plots in yellow [click to play animation]

** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

A daytime comparison of GOES-16 ABI “Blue” Visible (0.47 µm), “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above; also available as an MP4 animation) displayed the smoke plume and “hot spots” (black to yellow to red pixels) associated with the West Mims Fire that was burning in far southeastern Georgia on 25 April 2017 (this fire complex had been burning since 06 April, during which time the drought conditions had been worsening across that region). Downwind of the fire, in far northeastern Florida, smoke reduced the surface visibility to 2 miles at Jacksonville and 5 miles at Fernandina Beach.

During the subsequent nighttime hours — as the fires were beginning to decrease in both intensity and areal coverage — a comparison of “Snow/Ice” Near-Infrared (1.61 µm), “Cloud-Top Phase” Near-Infrared (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (below; also available as an MP4 animation) showed that a bright glow from the most intense fires was evident in both of the Near-Infrared spectral bands.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Snow/Ice” Near-Infrared (1.61 µm, top), “Cloud-Top Phase” Near-Infrared (2.24 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, bottom) images, with hourly surface plots in yellow [click to play animation]

Although the spatial resolution of the 1.61 µm Band 5 is 1 km (at satellite sub-point) versus 2 km for the 2.24 µm Band 6, the bright nighttime fire signature was more defined on the 2.24 µm imagery; this is explained by examining a plot of the Spectral Response Function (SRF) for each band (below; courtesy of Mat Gunshor, CIMSS). For a very hot fire target — represented by the red 1200 K line — the 2.24 µm Band 6 SRF is located near the peak of the 1200 K curve, so more of the fire-emitted radiance can be sensed by Band 6 (in spite of its lower spatial resolution).

Spectral Response Function plots for GOES-16 ABI Band 5 (1.61 µm), Band 6 (2.24 µm) and Band 7 (3.9 µm) [click to enlarge]

Spectral Response Function plots for GOES-16 ABI Band 5 (1.61 µm), Band 6 (2.24 µm) and Band 7 (3.9 µm) [click to enlarge]

Fires in eastern Kansas and Oklahoma

April 11th, 2017 |

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-13 (right) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-13 (right) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images [click to play animation]

 ** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

A comparison of GOES-16 and GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed numerous fire “hot spot” signatures (black to yellow to red pixels, with red being the hottest) from prescribed burning across the Flint Hills region of eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma on 11 April 2017. Such fires are an annual tradition in this area, required to preserve the tallgrass prairies — for example, over 2.7 million acres were burned during Spring 2016. The 2-km spatial resolution (at satellite sub-point) and 5-minute scan interval of GOES-16 allowed for more accurate detection and monitoring of the fires (compared to the 4-km spatial resolution and 15-30 minute scan interval of GOES-13).

The corresponding Visible GOES-16 (0.64 µm) vs GOES-13 (0.63 µm) images (below) tracked the development and transport of smoke from the fires. Hourly reports of surface visibility (in statute miles) are plotted in red; at Fort Riley, Kansas, smoke reduced the visibility from 10.0 miles at 21 UTC to 1.0 mile at 23 UTC, adversely affecting air quality there.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, right) images, with hourly reports of surface visibility (statute miles, red) [click to play animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, right) images, with hourly reports of surface visibility (statute miles, red) [click to play animation]

Thermal signature of missile strikes at Shayrat Air Base in Syria

April 7th, 2017 |

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly surface reports; Shayrat Air Base is located at the center of the cyan circle [click to play animation]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly surface reports; Shayrat Air Base is located at the center of the cyan circle [click to play animation]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the thermal signature or “hot spot” (darker black pixels) of fires resulting from US missile strikes at Syria’s Shayrat Air Base on 07 April 2017. The warmest infrared brightness temperature was 300.22 K on the 0030 UTC image (the SEVIRI instrument was scanning the Shayrat region at 00:40 UTC), which was about 25 K warmer than the surrounding background temperatures; though the fires were much smaller than the nominal 3 km spatial resolution of the 3.9 µm detector, the sub-pixel effect enables a signal of the fire radiative power to be registered.

A toggle between the 0015 and 0030 UTC images displayed using McIDAS-V (below; courtesy of William Straka, SSEC) highlights the appearance of the thermal signature at Shayrat Air Base. Two persistent hot spots located northeast of Palmyra could have been due to refinery or mining activities.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images at 0015 and 0030 UTC [click to enlarge]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images at 0015 and 0030 UTC [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 Mesoscale Sectors: improved monitoring of fire activity

March 19th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, left) and GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, left) and GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

** The GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. **

The ABI instrument on GOES-16 is able to scan 2 Mesoscale Sectors, each of which provides images at 1-minute intervals. For what was likely a prescribed burn in the Francis Marion National Forest (near the coast of South Carolina) on 19 March 2017, a comparison of 1 minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 and 15-30 minute Routine Scan GOES-13 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above; also available as a 50 Mbyte animated GIF) demonstrated the clear advantage of 1-minute imagery in terms of monitoring the short-term intensity fluctuations that are often exhibited by fire activity. In this case,  the intensity of the fire began to increase during 15:15-15:45 UTC — a time period when there was a 30-minute gap in routine scan imagery from GOES-13. The GOES-16 shortwave infrared brightness temperature then became very hot (red enhancement) beginning at 15:46:58 UTC, which again was not captured by GOES-13 — even on the 16:00 UTC and later images (however, this might be due to the more coarse 4-km spatial resolution of GOES-13, compared to the 2-km resolution of the shortwave infrared band on GOES-16). Similar short-term intensity fluctuations of a smaller fire (burning just to the southwest) were not adequately captured by GOES-13.

The corresponding GOES-16 vs GOES-13 Visible image comparison (below; also available as a 72 Mbyte animated GIF) also showed the advantage of 1-minute scans, along with the improved 0.5-km spatial resolution of the 0.64 µm spectral band on GOES-16 (which allowed brief pulses of pyrocumulus clouds to be seen developing over the fire source region).

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and GOES-13 Visible (0.63 µm, right) images [click to play MP4 animation]

 The rapid south-southeastward spread of the smoke plume could also be seen on true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS, as viewed using RealEarth (below).

Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color images [click to enlarge]