Lava flows continue from Kilauea’s Lower East Fissure Zone

June 18th, 2018 |

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Shortwave Infrared I04 (3.75 µm), Shortwave Infrared M13 (4.05 µm) and Longwave Infrared (11.45 µm) images (above) showed signatures of the ongoing lava flows from the Lower East Fissure Zone of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i at 1225 UTC (2:25 am local time) on 18 June 2018.

Note how the central ribbon of hottest lava flow (which continues its active ocean entry) saturated the I04 3.75 µm image, causing a “wrap-around” effect to display cold brightness temperatures (white pixels) — although the M13 4.05 µm band has a lower spatial resolution, it saturates at much higher temperatures, and sensed brightness temperatures in the 480 to 557 K range. The Infrared images also showed evidence of steam clouds flowing southward over the adjacent offshore waters.

A webcam image from near Kapoho (PGcam) around the time of the NOAA-20 VIIRS images is shown below. The active Fissure 8 is near the center of the image.

Webcam image from near Kapoho [click to enlarge]

Webcam image from near Kapoho [click to enlarge]

VIIRS imagery and webcam capture courtesy of William Straka (CIMSS).

Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 view Tropical Depression Alberto over the lower Ohio River Valley

May 30th, 2018 |

Day Night Band Visible (0.7 µm) Imagery from Suomi NPP (0722) and NOAA-20 (0812 UTC) over Tropical Depression Alberto (Click to enlarge)

Suomi-NPP and NOAA-20 overflew tropical depression Alberto, at 0722 and 0812 UTC, respectively (orbit paths from this site), on 30 May 2018, and the near-Full moon provided ample illumination for the Day Night Band imagery, shown above.  A motion to the northeast is apparent.  Convection developed far to the north of the storm as well, south of Chicago, and a streak of lightning occurs over Oklahoma in the later image.  (For individual Day Night Band images in the loop, click here for Suomi NPP and here for NOAA-20) A similar loop, below, shows the Window Channel (11.45 µm) from the VIIRS instrument on Suomi NPP and NOAA-20. A tip of the Hat to Will Straka, CIMSS, for the imagery.

VIIRS Window Channel (I05) Infrared (11.45 µm) Imagery from Suomi NPP (0722) and NOAA-20 (0812 UTC) over Tropical Depression Alberto (Click to enlarge)

Added: NOAA-20 was declared Operational on 30 May 2018. Welcome NOAA-20!

Subtropical Storm Alberto gradually intensifies

May 27th, 2018 |

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 0731 UTC or 3:31 am local time (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed Subtropical Storm Alberto when it was centered off the southwest coast of Florida on 27 May 2018. Note that NOAA-20 imagery is still considered preliminary and non-operational.

GOES-16 (GOES-East) Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images (below) revealed that dry air was wrapping into the circulation of Alberto during the day.

GOES-16 Low-level (7.3 µm, left), Mid-level (6.9 µm, center) and Upper-level (6.2 µm, right) Water Vapor images [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (below) showed that the low-level circulation center of Alberto became partially exposed, and the areal coverage and intensity of deep convection diminished somewhat during the day as the dry air was being entrained into the storm.

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images, with hourly plots of ship and buoy reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, with hourly plots of ship and buoy reports [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 29 May Update =====

Composite of GOES-16 1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images for the period 1630 UTC on 26 May to 1000 UTC on 29 May 2018 [click to play YouTube video]

A composite of GOES-16 1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images for the period 1630 UTC on 26 May to 1000 UTC on 29 May 2018 (above; courtesy of Pete Pokrandt, AOS) showed Subtropical Storm Alberto as it moved northward across the Gulf of Mexico and eventually inland over Alabama.

 

Large grass fires continue to burn in the southern Plains

April 17th, 2018 |

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed a number of “hot spot” signatures (dark black to red pixels) associated with grass fires that began burning in southeastern Colorado, southwest Kansas and the Oklahoma/Texas Panhandles on 17 April 2018. These fires spread very rapidly with strong surface winds (as high as 81 mph at Wolf Creek Pass CO) and very dry fuels due to Extreme to Exceptional drought. In addition to these new fires, hot pixels from the ongoing Rhea Fire in northwest Oklahoma (which began burning on 12 April) were still apparent.

During the subsequent nighttime hours, a strong cold front plunged southeastward across the region (surface analyses) — and on a closer view of GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared images (below), 2 different behaviors were seen for 2 of the larger fires. As the cold front moved over the Badger Hole Fire that was burning along the Colorado/Kansas border, an immediate decreasing trend in hot spot intensity and coverage was noted. Farther to the southeast, when the cold front later moved over the Rhea Fire in northwest Oklahoma a flare-up in hot spot intensity and coverage was evident.

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 18 April Update =====

A nighttime comparison of (Preliminary, Non-Operational) NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), and M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images (below; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed a variety of fire detection signatures associated with the Rhea Fire (283,095 acres, 3% contained) in northwest Oklahoma.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images [click to enlarge]

The early afternoon 1-km resolution Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product (below) indicated that LST values within the Rhea burn scar (which covered much of Dewey County in Oklahoma) were as high as 100 to 105 ºF (darker red enhancement) — about 10 to 15 ºF warmer than adjacent unburned vegetated surfaces.

Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

===== 19 April Update =====

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 false-color image from RealEarth (below) provided a detailed view of the Badger Hole Fire, which had burned 48,400 acres along the Colorado/Kansas border.

Landsat-8 false-color image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 false-color image [click to enlarge]