Chinook winds and an atmospheric river affect south-central Alaska

December 9th, 2019 |

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images, along with

GOES-17 Low-level (7.3 µm), Mid-level (6.9 µm) and Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor images, along with “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-17 (GOES-West) Low-level Water Vapor (7.3 µm), Mid-level Water Vapor (6.9 µm), Upper-level (6.2 µm) Water Vapor and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (above) showed orographic wave clouds and banner clouds associated with strong winds across south-central Alaska on 09 December 2019. These strong winds were associated with flow around a deepening Storm Force low that was moving from the Gulf of Alaska to the Bering Sea (surface analyses). Downsloping (southeasterly) chinook winds (topography) caused the air temperature at Anchorage International Airport (PANC) to rise to 51ºF** at 2200 UTC (11:00 am local time) — which set a new record high for the month of December at that site (** the 5-minute ASOS temperatures are reported in ºC — and rounding errors caused the conversion to be listed as 52ºF).



The Storm Force low was also helping to advect an atmospheric river of moisture northward toward south-central Alaska, which was depicted in hourly images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below). Heavy rainfall (including 1.30 inch at Homer) resulting from this influx of moisture produced rises in some rivers in the Kenai Peninsula south of Anchorage.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]

 

Typhoon Kammuri makes landfall in the Philippines

December 2nd, 2019 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

2.5-minute interval rapid scan JMA Himawari-8 AHI “Clean” Infrared (10.4 µm) images (above) showed Typhoon Kammuri as it made landfall in the Philippines around 1500 UTC on 02 December 2019. Kammuri rapidly intensified from a Category 2 to a Category 4 storm (ADT | SATCON) shortly before landfall — it had been moving over very warm water (Sea Surface Temperature | Ocean Heat Content) in the Philippine Sea.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC viewed using RealEarth (below) depicted Kammuri 2-3 hours after landfall.

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Infrared Window (11.45 µm) from Suomi NPP at 1707 UTC and NOAA-20 at 1757 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) imagery at 1725 UTC (below) revealed a large eye and nearly circular eyewall.

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W1 AMSR2 Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1725 UTC [click to enlarge]

Hurricane Lorenzo in the Atlantic Ocean

September 26th, 2019 |

 

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed Hurricane Lorenzo as it rapidly intensified from a Category 2 storm at 00 UTC to a Category 4 storm by 15 UTC (ADT | SATCON) on 26 September 2019.

A toggle between VIIRS True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 as viewed using RealEarth (below) provided a detailed view of the eye and eyewall region of Lorenzo at 1542 UTC and 1632 UTC. On the Suomi NPP Infrared image, note the transverse banding northwest of the eye, and a small packet of gravity waves southwest of the eye.

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window<em> (11.45 µm)</em> images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS True Color RGB and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from Suomi NPP (at 1542 UTC) and NOAA-20 (at 1632 UTC) [click to enlarge]

A DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) revealed a well-defined eyewall wrapping around the southern, eastern and northern periphery of the eye.

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1941 UTC [click to enlarge]

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image at 1941 UTC [click to enlarge]

Severe thunderstorms in Arizona

September 23rd, 2019 |

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to play animation | MP4]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-17 (GOES-West) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images (above) showed the development of severe thunderstorms over southern/central Arizona from 1600-1900 UTC on 23 September 2019. The far western storm exhibited a well-defined Above-Anvil Cirrus Plume (AACP) that extended northeastward from the cold overshooting top (whose coldest infrared brightness temperature was -74ºC); note that the AACP feature appeared colder (shades of yellow to orange) on the Infrared images (for example, at 1817 UTC).

As the western storm began to weaken somewhat, a new storm just to the east (located about 20-30 miles north-northeast of the Phoenix metro area) began to intensify, prompting the issuance of a Tornado Warning at 1914 UTC (the last tornado warning issued by NWS Phoenix was 21 January 2010) — a brief EF0 tornado was documented (NWS Phoenix summary).

GOES-17 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-17 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.35 µm) images, with surface reports plotted in cyan [click to play animation | MP4]

Much of the moisture helping to fuel the development of this severe convection was from the remnants of Tropical Storm Lorena in the East Pacific Ocean — the northward transport of this moisture could be seen using the hourly MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below).

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation | MP4]


 

GOES-17 ABI Band 13 (10.35 µm) Clean Window Imagery and Derived Convective Available Potential Energy, 1501 – 1856 UTC on 23 September 2019 (Click to animate)

 

Stability parameters from GOES-16 showed that the reigon of thunderstorm development was just east of a strong gradient in Convective Available Potential Energy.  The animation above shows the GOES-17 Clean Window;  in regions of clear sky, the baseline Derived Stability Index CAPE is shown.  CAPE values are zero over much of California (except for the southeasternmost corner) but they increase rapidly over Arizona to values approaching 1000 J/kg.

On 23 September, skies were clear enough that an instability signal was obvious in the clear-sky baseline CAPE. An ‘All-Sky’ product has been developed that can be used on days with more widespread cloudiness; it is available at this link. Values of All-Sky CAPE at 1156 and 1556 UTC on 23 September are shown below, and they also show a sharp gradient in the instability, and the link down to moisture from Lorena’s remants.

‘All-Sky’ values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) at 1156 and 1556 UTC on 23 September 2019 (Click to enlarge)

NOAA/CIMSS ProbSevere is a product designed to indicate the likelihood that a given object will produce severe weather within the next 60 minutes. An animation of the product at 5-minute intervals, below, shows that the right-moving radar cell (also associated, as noted above, with an AACP) that developed over far southwestern Arizona (becoming a warned storm at 1647 UTC) was very likely to produce severe weather.

NOAA/CIMSS ProbSevere from 16:30 UTC to 18:00 UTC. Contours surrounding radar objects are color-coded such that pink/magenta contours are the highest probability.  Warning polygons (yellow for severe thunderstorm) are also shown (Click to enlarge)

Parameters that are used to determine the probability can be revealed at the ProbSevere site by mousing over the colored object contours.  The values for the warned storm over SW Arizona are shown below at 1650 UTC, 3 minutes after the warning was issued.  This image shows the 1710 UTC readout with the highest ProbWind value (76%); this image shows the 1725 UTC readout with the highest ‘ProbHail’ value (99%); ProbTor values on this day were not exceptionally large — for the later tornado-warned storm farther east, they were 28% at 1915 UTC and 30% at 1920 UTC.

NOAA/CIMSS ProbSevere display from 1650 UTC on 23 September 2019; parameters used in the probability computation, and Severe Thunderstorm Warning polygon parameters are also shown (Click to enlarge)

CIMSS is developing a machine-learning tool that combines ABI and GLM imagery (that is, only satellite data) to identify regions where supercellular thunderstorms capable of producing severe weather might be occurring. An mp4 animation for this event (courtesy John Cintineo, CIMSS) is shown below.  (This experimental product was also shown in this blog post)