Smoke plumes from Saudi Arabian oil facilities

September 15th, 2019 |

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) imagery from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Visible (0.64 µm) imagery from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (above) revealed dark smoke plumes from oil refineries and other facilities damaged by drone strikes early in the day on 14 September 2019.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images (below) showed the south-southwestward transport of the smoke plumes. Thick smoke drifted over Al Ahsa (OEAH), and at one point restricted to 2.8 miles.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

Before (13 September) and after (14-15 September) True Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS as viewed using RealEarth are shown below.

True Color RGB images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS, from 13-15 September [click to enlarge]

True Color RGB images from Terra MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS, from 13-15 September [click to enlarge]

A sequence of 3 VIIRS Day/Night Band images from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (below) showed nighttime views of the smoke plumes, illuminated by the Moon (which was in the Waning Gibbous phase, at 98% of Full).

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 [click to enlarge]

VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) from Suomi NPP and NOAA-20 (courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) [click to enlarge]

A Meteosat-8 Visible animation spanning portions of 14, 15 and 16 September is shown below.

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

EUMETSAT Meteosat-8 Visible (0.8 µm) images with hourly plots of surface reports, 14-16 September [click to play animation | MP4]

===== 17 September Update =====

Landsat-8 False Color image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image [click to enlarge]

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color RGB image (above) showed a number of smoke plumes from oil facility fires that continued to burn on 17 September.

Flooding along portions of the Mississippi River

June 1st, 2019 |

Landsat-8 False Color RGB images + GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image + GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers [click to enlarge]

A comparison of a Landsat-8 False Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image and the GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers as viewed using RealEarth (above) showed areas of river flooding in the Cape Girardeau, Missouri and Cairo, Illinois areas on 01 June 2019.

The River Flood Areal Extent product — derived using GOES-16 data — as depicted in AWIPS is shown below.

GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product [click to enlarge]

Farther to the northwest, a similar comparison of a Landsat-8 False Color RGB image and the GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers (below) revealed river flooding near St. Louis, Missouri.

Landsat-8 False Color RGB images + GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image + GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers [click to enlarge]

The GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product over this area as depicted in AWIPS is shown below.

GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product [click to enlarge]

GOES-16 River Flood Areal Extent product [click to enlarge]



Maps of 7, 14 and 30-day precipitation (below) depicted heavy rainfall focused across southern Iowa, northern Missouri and northwestern Illinois — it was this heavy rain that exacerbated the ongoing river flooding problems in parts of the central US.

7-day, 14-day and 30-day precipitation ending at 12 UTC on 01 June 2019 [click to enlarge]

7-day, 14-day and 30-day precipitation ending at 12 UTC on 01 June 2019 [click to enlarge]

Much of the 30-day precipitation north (upstream) of the flooding areas shown above was 4-8 inches above normal, or 200-300% of normal (below).

30-day precipitation, departure and percent of normal ending at 12 UTC on 01 June 2019 [click to enlarge]

30-day precipitation, departure and percent of normal ending at 12 UTC on 01 June 2019 [click to enlarge]

Spring Hill Fire in New Jersey

March 31st, 2019 |

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, left), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, left), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm, center) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images [click to play animation | MP4]

The Spring Hill Fire began to burn in central New Jersey around 1745 UTC (1:45 PM EDT) on 30 March 2019. GOES-16 (GOES-East) Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Near-Infrared “Cloud Particle Size” (2.24 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the hot thermal signature of the fire as it burned into the subsequent nighttime hours and the following morning. Smoke from the fire drifted northeastward, reducing the surface visibility at Lakehurst Naval Air Station (KNEL), Toms River (KMJX) and Belmar (KBLM).

GOES-16 also initially viewed this area with 1-minute imagery from 1700-1859 UTC (since the Mesoscale Sector #1 normally covers New Jersey), and first displayed a fire hot spot around 1745 UTC. The animation below shows Visible imagery (0.64 µm), with Shortwave Infrared imagery in the background. One-minute data was valuable during these two hours because the rapidly moving clouds occasionally allowed brief views of the surface. It’s also easier to identify the smoke plume as a coherent structure with a 1-minute cadence (vs. the 5-minute cadence available with CONUS scans). At 1900 UTC, GOES-16 Mesoscale Sector #1 was repositioned to cover developing convection over the mid-Mississippi River Valley, so 1-minute views of New Jersey were terminated.

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, with Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) pixels displayed through the semi-transparent visible images [click to play animation | MP4]

The GOES Fire Detection and Characterization Algorithm (the Baseline fire-detection product) is shown below. This product is not computed in Mesoscale Domains, so only CONUS imagery with a 5-minute cadence is shown. The widespread cloud cover affected the signal, but the fire was still detected. Note that the Fire Power product identified the fire pixels more frequently (consider the 1832 UTC image, for example).

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, upper left), GOES Fire Temperature (upper right), GOES Fire Area (lower right) and GOES Fire Power (lower left) [click to play animation | MP4]

The rapid growth of the fire thermal signature was apparent in a sequence of 3 daytime and 3 nighttime VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (below). Note: some of the NOAA-20 images — 1750 UTC on 30 March, along with 0609 and 0749 UTC on 31 March — are incorrectly labeled as Suomi NPP.

NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Signatures of the fire were also seen in a comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.24 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images (below, courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.24 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.24 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images [click to enlarge]


===== 01 April Update =====

Terra MODIS True Color and False Color images on 01 April [cick to enlarge]

Terra MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images on 01 April [click to enlarge]

In a comparison of Terra MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images on 01 April from the MODIS Today site (above) the fire burn scar was evident in the False Color image.

The appearance of the burn scar was also seen in a before/after toggle between Terra MODIS False Color RGB images on 27 March and 01 April (below).

Terra MODIS False Color RGB images on 28 March and 01 April [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS False Color RGB images on 28 March and 01 April [click to enlarge]

A closer view of the 01 April Terra MODIS False Color RGB image using RealEarth (below) showed that the northeastern edge of the burn scar was near Route 72 (which had to be closed as the fire was being contained), and may have threatened structures at Coyle Field.

Terra MODIS False Color RGB and Google Maps background images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS False Color RGB and Google Maps background images [click to enlarge]

===== 08 April Update =====

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image, with Google Maps background [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image, with Google Maps background [click to enlarge]

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color RGB image from 08 April (above) provided a very detailed view of the Spring Hill Fire burn scar. It suggested that the fire did cross Route 72 at Coyle Field.

Large ice lead near Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska

March 28th, 2019 |

Landsat-8 False Color RGB image at 2222 UTC [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 False Color RGB images on 21 March and 28 March [click to enlarge]

A toggle between 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 False Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images viewed using RealEarth (above) revealed a large ice lead that had opened up to the east of Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska on 28 March 2019. Snow and ice appear as darker shades of cyan in the RGB image, with open water exhibiting a dark blue to black appearance.

A sequence of True Color RGB images from NOAA-20 / Suomi NPP VIIRS and Terra MODIS (below) showed the ice lead becoming wider with time during a 5-hour period (note: the time stamps on the images do not reflect the actual time each satellite passed over the Utqiagvik area). The MODIS image appeared the sharpest, since that instrument has a 250-meter resolution in the visible spectral bands (compared to 375 meters for VIIRS).

True Color RGB images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP VIIRS and Terra MODIS [click to play animation]

True Color RGB images from NOAA-20 / Suomi NPP VIIRS and Terra MODIS [click to play animation]

In a 14-day series of Terra MODIS composites (below) it can be seen that the same general ice fracture line had opened and closed a few times during the 15-28 March period, depending on the influences of surface wind stress and sea currents. Days with strong and persistent southwesterly winds led to an opening of the ice lead (such as 20 March); however, the largest 1-day change — and the largest opening of the ice lead — occurred from 27-28 March (MODIS | VIIRS), when the strong southwest winds were bringing unseasonably warm air (over 30ºF above normal) across the area. The daily high temperature at Utqiagvik on 28 March was 30ºF, which set a new record high for the date (the normal high temperature for 28 March is -3ºF). Incidentally, this period of above-normal temperatures contributed to Utqiagvik having its warmest March on record.

Daily composites of Terra MODIS True Color RGB images, 15-28 March [click to play animation]

Daily composites of Terra MODIS True Color RGB images, 15-28 March [click to play animation | MP4]