PyroCb in Ontario, Canada

May 22nd, 2018 |

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed that Canadian wildfires burning along the Manitoba/Ontario border produced a pyroCumulonimbus (pyroCb) around 1930 UTC on 22 May 2018.

As the pyroCb moved southeastward over western Ontario, the coldest GOES-16 cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were around -55ºC (orange enhancement), which corresponded to altitudes of about 10.3 to 10.8 km according the rawinsonde data from Pickle Lake, Ontario (below).

Rawinsonde data profiles from Pickle Lake, Ontario [click to enlarge]

Rawinsonde data profiles from Pickle Lake, Ontario [click to enlarge]

In a comparison of 1-km resolution NOAA-19 Visible (0.63 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images at 2210 UTC (below), the minimum cloud-top infrared brightness temperature was -58.1ºC (darker orange enhancement), which roughly corresponded to altitudes of 10.6 to 11.0 km (just below the tropopause) on the Pickle Lake soundings.

NOAA-19 Visible (0.63 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-19 Visible (0.63 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.7 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Fires in Saskatchewan

May 15th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI Band 1 (“Blue Visible”, 0.47 µm, top), Band 2 (“Red Visible”, 0.64 µm, middle) and Band 7 (“Shortwave Infrared”, 3.9 µm, bottom) from 1345 to 2230 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to animate);  Note that the yellow enhancement in the shortwave infrared starts at 305 K.

Fires that developed over the plains of Saskatchewan, near Meadow Lake in west-central Saskatchewan, and near Prince Albert in central Saskatchewan, showed up well in Visible and Infrared imagery, shown above.  A wind shift that occurred as the fires burned changed the direction of the smoke plume.  Prince Albert had visibilities that dropped to 3 statute miles.  Meadow Lake had visibilities down to 4 statute miles.

True-Color imagery (Source: (Link), imagery provided by Paul Ford, ECC Canada), also shows the distinct smoke plumes from the fires.

True-Color imagery over Saskatchewan, 1730-2000 UTC

The Dual-Pol S-band radar at Radisson captured the plume north of Prince Albert at 1900 UTC (See below; click here for the satellite imagery at that time).  Very small Cross-Correlation coefficients are apparent in the smoke plume. The radar at 2010 UTC (link) suggests 3 separate fires, which agrees with the satellite imagery. (Click here for 2015 UTC Satellite Imagery).

Cross-Correlation Scan from the dual pol, S-band at Radisson, Saskatchewan, 1900 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

Many Thanks to Paul Ford, ECC Canada, for the radar imagery, and for alerting us to this event. Saskatchewan fires can be tracked at this website. Most of Saskatchewan is currently under a fire ban.


========== ADDED ============
AWIPS imagery of this fire were collected. Click here to see the towns of the region. Full-disk imagery is available from GOES-16 at 15-minute increments. The 3.9 µm imagery is shown from 1200 to 2345 UTC, followed by the Fire RGB Imagery. The Fire RGB image combines the 3.9 µm (Red), 2.2 µm (Green) and 1.6 µm (Blue) imagery. The wavelength of the radiation emitted by the fire decreases as the temperature of the fire increases; a relatively cool fire will emit mostly 3.9 µm energy and will be red in the RGB. A very hot fire will emit all three wavelengths and will appear whiter in the RGB.

GOES-16 ABI Band 7 (“Shortwave Infrared”, 3.9 µm) from 1200 to 2345 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 ABI Fire RGB, combining 3.9 µm, 2.2 µm and 1.6 µm imagery, from 1200 to 2345 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

The imagery below is zoomed in on the region of the three fires.  (Map).  The 3.9 µm is shown first, then the Fire RGB.

GOES-16 ABI Band 7 (“Shortwave Infrared”, 3.9 µm) from 1200 to 2345 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 ABI Fire RGB, combining 3.9 µm, 2.2 µm and 1.6 µm imagery, from 1200 to 2345 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

 

The RGB — like many — gives an excellent qualitative estimate of the fire.  Quantitative estimates are available that more define the fire more comprehensively. The 1845 UTC Fire RGB suggests a very hot fire (the 3.9 µm imagery at 1845 UTC suggests the same thing). What do the Baseline fire products show? The Fire Temperature, Fire Power, and Fire Area products for 1845 UTC are shown below.  (Animations are here:  Fire Temperature, Fire Power, Fire Area)   Hotter fire pixels are apparent at 1745 and 2015 UTC.    Click for toggles of Band 7 (3.9 µm), Fire RGB and Baseline Fire Temperature at 1745 UTC, 1845 UTC, and 2015 UTC.  These products might facilitate resource allocation in a way that single channels or RGB combinations cannot.

GOES-16 Baseline Fire Temperature Product 1845 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Fire Power Baseline Product, 1845 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 ABI Fire Area Baseline Product at 1845 UTC on 15 May 2018 (Click to enlarge)

PyroCumulonimbus cloud in Texas

May 11th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

A large pyroCumulonimbus (pyroCb) cloud developed from the Mallard Fire in the Texas Panhandle on 11 May 2018, aided by warm temperatures and strong winds ahead of an approaching dryline (surface analyses).  1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed the large thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (red 3.9 µm pixels) and the rapid development of  the pyroCb cloud beginning shortly after 1900 UTC. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures cooled to -60 ºC — the tropopause temperature on the 00 UTC Amarillo sounding — by around 2130 UTC. On the Shortwave Infrared imagery, note the relatively warm (darker gray) appearance of the pyroCb cloud top — a characteristic signature of pyroCb anvils due to enhanced reflection of solar radiation off of smaller cloud-top particles.

4-panel comparisons of Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1936 UTC and 2029 UTC (below) revealed that the maximum differences between 3.74 µm and 11.45 µm cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures — at the same location on the pyroCb anvil — were 86ºC (+26ºC and -59ºC at 1936 UTC) and 91.5ºC (+27.5ºC and -63ºC at 2029 UTC).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm), Near-Infrared

Suomi NPP VIIRS Visible (0.64 µm, upper left), Near-Infrared “Snow/Ice” (1.61 µm, upper right), Shortwave Infrared (3.74 µm, lower left) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm, lower right) images at 1936 UTC and 2029 UTC [click to enlarge]

Lightning was detected from portions of the smoke plume, as well as the core of the pyroCb thunderstorm.

After dark, the thermal signature of the Mallard Fire was also apparent on GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Cloud particle size” (2.24 µm) imagery (below).

GOES-16 Near-Infrared

GOES-16 Near-Infrared “Cloud particle size” (2.24 µm, top), Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, center) and “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm, bottom) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 12 May Update =====

Terra MODIS True-color and False-color images [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS True-color and False-color images [click to enlarge]

In a comparison of 250-meter resolution Terra MODIS True-color and False-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) images from the MODIS Today site (above), the Mallard Fire burn scar was evident in the False-color. Both images showed a smoke plume from ongoing fire activity, which was drifting northward across the Texas Panhandle.

The corresponding Terra MODIS Land Surface Temperature product (below) indicated that LST values within the burn scar were as high as 137ºF (darker red enhancement), in contrast to values around 100ºF adjacent to the burn scar.

Terra MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

Fires and blowing dust across the Upper Midwest and southern Manitoba

April 29th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with surface station identifiers plotted in cyan [click to play MP4 animation]

The combination of strong winds and low relative humidity prompted the SPC to forecast elevated to critical fire weather potential across parts of the Upper Midwest on 29 April 2018. A Mesoscale Domain Sector was positioned over the region, providing data at 1-minute intervals — and “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) revealed the smoke plumes and thermal anomalies or “hot spots” (black to yellow to red pixels) associated with some of these larger fires. The most prominent fires were located in southeastern Manitoba later in the day (including the largest fire EA015, which was listed as Out of Control).

On the Visible images, also note the hazy signature of blowing dust that developed from the northern Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota into southern Manitoba — with winds gusting in excess of 50 knots, the surface visibility dropped to 3 miles at Grafton ND (KGAF) and Winnipeg International Airport (located just northwest of station CXWN in southern Manitoba).

Time series of surface observation data at Grafton, North Dakota [click to enlarge]

Time series of surface observation data at Grafton, North Dakota [click to enlarge]

Time series plot of surface weather data at Winnipeg, Manitoba [click to enlarge]

Time series plot of surface observation data at Winnipeg, Manitoba [click to enlarge]