Eruptions of Kilauea in Hawai’i

May 5th, 2018 |

GOES-15 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-15 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

Heightened seismic activity of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawai’i had been ongoing since April 2018, but increased further in early May leading to a series of minor eruptions (Hawaiian Volcano Observatory | USGS) — and GOES-15 (GOES-West) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed the nearly persistent thermal anomaly or “hot spot” (dark black to red enhancement) during the 03-05 May period. Among the numerous earthquakes, the strongest was an M6.9 which occurred at 2233 UTC on 04 May.

A nighttime image of Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) data viewed using RealEarth (below) revealed the bright glow from Kilauea, and also from the Leilani Estates subdivision where several fissure vents had opened (forcing some evacuations).

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day.Night Band (0.7 µm) images, with island boundary and Google Maps labels [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images, with the island boundary and Google Maps labels [click to enlarge]

A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band images from 03 May and 04 May (below) showed the before/after difference in the bright signal emitted by the fissure vents near Leilani Estates.

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images from 03 May and 04 May [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) images from 03 May and 04 May [click to enlarge]

===== 06 May Update =====

Eruptions of fissure vents became more continuous in the Leilani Estates subdivision on 06 May. A comparison of GOES-15 Visible and Shortwave Infrared images (below) showed a long volcanic plume streaming southwestward, with robust thermal anomaly activity at the plume source.

http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/G15_VIS_SWIR_HI_06MAY2018_960x640_B12_2018126_201500_0002PANELS_00002.GIF

GOES-15 Visible (0.63 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play animation | MP4]

An Aqua MODIS True-color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image (below) provided a more detailed view of the volcanic plume at 0007 UTC on 07 May. Note the cluster of red thermal anomalies in the vicinity of the Leilani Estates subdivision (the source of the plume).

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True-color RGB image, with VIIRS thermal anomalies plotted in red [click to enlarge]

Refinery Explosion and Fire in Superior WI

April 26th, 2018 |

GOES-16 ABI “Red Visible” (0.64 µm) from 1532-2027 UTC on 26 April 2018 (Click to enlarge)

Explosions at an oil refinery in Superior WI on 26 April 2018 (news link) produced a black plume of smoke visible in the GOES-16 “Red Visible” Band, the highest resolution (0.5 km at nadir) band on GOES-16. The plume is first visible at about 1717 UTC, and it then streams southeastward over northwest Wisconsin. Areas immediately downwind of the refinery were evacuated due to air quality concerns.

The explosion and subsequent fire was not sufficiently hot to be detected by the shortwave infrared 3.9 µm channel on GOES-16. However, the smoke plume is obvious in this animation, cooler than the background by 3-4ºC, and yellow in the enhancement chosen.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Near-Infrared “Vegetation” (0.86 µm, right) images [click to animate]

The dark smoke plume was also evident on Near-Infrared “Vegetation” (0.86 µm) images (above), aided by the additional contrast between the dark plume and the lighter gray appearance of the land surface.

GOES-16 Natural Color images [click to animate]

GOES-16 Natural Color RGB images [click to animate]

The GOES-16 Natural Color Red-Green-Blue (RGB) product (above) was also useful for identifying and tracking the smoke plume.

Aqua MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS True Color and False Color RGB images [click to enlarge]

250-meter resolution Aqua MODIS True Color and False Color images from the MODIS Today site (above) provided a detailed view of the smoke plume at 1842 UTC. In the False Color image, snow cover and lake ice appear as shades of cyan.

Large grass fires continue to burn in the southern Plains

April 17th, 2018 |

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed a number of “hot spot” signatures (dark black to red pixels) associated with grass fires that began burning in southeastern Colorado, southwest Kansas and the Oklahoma/Texas Panhandles on 17 April 2018. These fires spread very rapidly with strong surface winds (as high as 81 mph at Wolf Creek Pass CO) and very dry fuels due to Extreme to Exceptional drought. In addition to these new fires, hot pixels from the ongoing Rhea Fire in northwest Oklahoma (which began burning on 12 April) were still apparent.

During the subsequent nighttime hours, a strong cold front plunged southeastward across the region (surface analyses) — and on a closer view of GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared images (below), 2 different behaviors were seen for 2 of the larger fires. As the cold front moved over the Badger Hole Fire that was burning along the Colorado/Kansas border, an immediate decreasing trend in hot spot intensity and coverage was noted. Farther to the southeast, when the cold front later moved over the Rhea Fire in northwest Oklahoma a flare-up in hot spot intensity and coverage was evident.

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images, with hourly plots of surface reports [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 18 April Update =====

A nighttime comparison of (Preliminary, Non-Operational) NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), and M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images (below; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed a variety of fire detection signatures associated with the Rhea Fire (283,095 acres, 3% contained) in northwest Oklahoma.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), I-Band Shortwave Infrared (3.75 µm), M-Band Shortwave Infrared (4.05 µm), M-Band Near-Infrared (1.61 µm and 2.25 µm) images [click to enlarge]

The early afternoon 1-km resolution Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product (below) indicated that LST values within the Rhea burn scar (which covered much of Dewey County in Oklahoma) were as high as 100 to 105 ºF (darker red enhancement) — about 10 to 15 ºF warmer than adjacent unburned vegetated surfaces.

Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature product [click to enlarge]

===== 19 April Update =====

A 30-meter resolution Landsat-8 false-color image from RealEarth (below) provided a detailed view of the Badger Hole Fire, which had burned 48,400 acres along the Colorado/Kansas border.

Landsat-8 false-color image [click to enlarge]

Landsat-8 false-color image [click to enlarge]

Wildfires in northeastern Oklahoma

March 24th, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm, right) images, with surface airport identifiers plotted in cyan [click to play MP4 animation)

GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (3.9 µm) images (above) showed smoke plumes and fire “hot spots” associated with numerous wildfires burning in northeastern Oklahoma on 24 March 2018.

A comparison of Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared images (below) showed  higher-resolution view of the fire hot spots.

Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared images with surface observations plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]

Terra/Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Shortwave Infrared images with surface observations plotted in cyan [click to enlarge]