When air is lifted, why does its temperature decrease? (10 points)
When air is lifted its temperature decreases because its potential energy is increasing. The farther you pull air up the greater its potential energy will be because the force of gravity is trying to pull it down. Energy must be conserved. So, because the air parcel's potential energy is going up, its kinetic energy must be going down. Kinetic energy is the average speed at which the molecules are moving and represents the particles average object's temperature. So if the kinetic energy of air goes down as it travels upward its temperature is decreasing, in order for the potential energy to go up.
Explain the reason of the seasons. Do you expect the average wintertime temperature of the Southern Hemisphere to be warmer or colder the the average wintertime temperature of the Northern Hemisphere? (Hint -- you are comparing the average July temperature of the Southern Hemisphere with the average January temperature of the Northern Hemisphere). Explain your answers. (10 points)
The earth has seasons because of the tilt of the earth towards the sun at different times of year. I would expect the wintertime temperature of the Southern Hemisphere to be warmer than the wintertime temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. During the month of July in the Southern Hemisphere, not only is the earth farther away from the sun, but it is also tilted away from the sun. During the month of January in the Northern Hemisphere, the earth is tilted away from the sun, but it is closer to the sun. This would make the Sourthern Hemisphere colder. However, there is another factor that will affect the temperature of wintertime in the Southern Hemisphere. That factor is water. Water has a high specific heat. Therefore it takes longer to heat up or cool down. The Southern Hemisphere is mainly water, and this factor overpowers the tilt and distance of the earth in regards to the sun. So, the Southern Hemisphere will have warmer winters because it mainly consists of large bodies of water.