January 20th, 2015 | Scott Bachmeier
MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product, with Tropical Surface Analyses (click to play animation)
AWIPS images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (above; click image to play animation) showed a broad moist plume in the equatorial South Pacific Ocean, within which Tropical Storm Niko began to develop during the 19 January – 20 January 2015 period. By the end of the animation, Gale Force winds were being analyzed within the eastern semicircle of the developing cyclone. Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds at 08:01 UTC (below) showed winds as strong as 42 knots (though the direction of the stronger yellow wind barbs was suspect, likely due to rain contamination).
MIMIC TPW product, with Metop ASCAT surface scatterometer winds
After daybreak on 20 January, McIDAS images of GOES-15 (GOES-West) 0.63 µm visible channel data (below; click image to play animation) showed the development of spiral banding wrapping into the central low-level circulation center as the system reached tropical storm intensity by 18 UTC. In addition, a few strong convective pulses with distinct overshooting tops could be seen near the core of Niko.
GOES-15 0.63 µm visible channel images (click to play animation)
An animation of GOES-15 10.7 µm IR channel images from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) included an overlay of contours of the deep layer (200 – 850 hPa) wind shear at 18 UTC — Tropical Storm Niko developed in a region characterized by low wind shear, which enabled the storm to rapidly intensify.
GOES-15 10.7 µm IR channel images, with contours of deep layer wind shear
January 14th, 2015 | Scott Bachmeier
SSEC RealEarth™ Infrared satellite image featured on NBC Nightly News
The SSEC RealEarth™ geostationary satellite infrared (IR) image composite shown above (which was first sent out via Twitter by Stu Ostro of The Weather Channel…thanks Stu!) was featured on the NBC Nightly News on 14 January 2015 (link) because it illustrated a vivid example of the trans-Atlantic flow of moisture from a disturbance off the US East Coast to a rapidly-deepening storm approaching the British Isles (surface analysis maps | water vapor images with surface analyses).
A sequence of hourly geostationary satellite water vapor channel image composites (below; click to play animation) showed that there was a clear trans-Atlantic connection in terms of middle to upper tropospheric moisture/clouds, and a comparison of the 20 UTC water vapor image with the corresponding MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product indicated that there was a lower to middle tropospheric moisture connection as well. This type of long and narrow fetch of TPW is often referred to as an “atmospheric river”.
Geostationary satellite water vapor image composites (click to play animation)
Another interesting point brought up during the NBC Nightly News segment was the recent presence of unusually strong trans-Atlantic jet stream winds, which has allowed aircraft flying from New York City to London to set record times in terms of conventional passenger aircraft (such as the 08 January flight of British Airways 114). Note the strong dry-to-moist (darker blue to white to green color enhancement) along the northern edge of the trans-Atlantic water vapor image moisture feed: such a moisture gradient often coincides with the axis of a strong jet stream. AWIPS images of water vapor imagery with overlays of MADIS cloud-tracked and water-vapor-tracked winds (below; click image to play animation) showed many high-altitude wind vectors in the vicinity of the jet stream moisture gradient with speeds in the 150-160 knot range (with 175 knots seen on the previous day).
Water vapor images with MADIS atmospheric motion vectors (click to play animation)
January 13th, 2015 | Scott Bachmeier
Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT) intensity estimate
A plot of the Advanced Dvorak Technique intensity estimate for Tropical Cyclone Bansi (above) showed that the storm experienced a period of rapid intensification late in the day on 12 January 2015, reaching Category 4 intensity by 00 UTC on 13 January.
EUMESAT Metosat-7 11.5 µm IR channel images (below; click to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) revealed the formation of a well-defined eye, which also exhibited a notable amount of trochoidal motion or “wobble” as it moved across the southwest Indian Ocean (north of Reunion and Mascarene Island).
Meteosat-7 11.5 µm IR channel images (click to play animation)
A more detailed view of Tropical Cyclone Bansi was provided by McIDAS-V images of Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band data (below; credit: William Straka, SSEC) — deep convection with overshooting tops could be seen in the southern quadrant eyewall region, with gravity waves propagating radially outward across the northeastern and eastern portion of the cirrus canopy.
Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm IR and 0.7 µm Day/Night Band images
A DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) showed that a prominent “moat” of warm brightness temperatures (darker blue color enhancement) existed around the center of Bansi at 14:24 UTC on 13 January. The presence of such a moat usually signifies that the secondary (outer) eyewall formation process has completed, and an eyewall replacement cycle is underway (also signalling that the period of rapid intensification has ended). The moat feature is sustained by subsidence from the eyewall secondary circulations.
DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image
Note that there was no well-defined eye evident on the conventional Meteosat-7 IR image during this eyewall replacement cycle (below).
Meteosat-7 11.5 µm IR channel and DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave images
January 10th, 2015 | Scott Bachmeier
Meteosat-10 6.25 µm water vapor channel images (click to play animation)
The intense extratropical cyclone referred to in Norway as “Extreme Weather Nina” was described as the strongest storm to hit the western part of that country in 20 years, bringing high winds that caused widespread tree and property damage, disrupted power for an estimated 170,000 people, and halted some forms of transportation on 10 January 2015 (The Nordic Page). EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 6.25 µm water vapor channel images (above; click image to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) showed the well-defined circulation of the storm, which included a “scorpion tail” signature (10 UTC image) over the North Sea west of Norway suggesting that a sting jet feature may have been present. About 3 hours after the leading edge of this middle-tropospheric sting jet signature moved over Haugesund, winds there gusted to 71 knots/36.5 meters per second. Winds gusted as high as 89 knots/45.7 meters per second at the offshore oil platform Gullfax, and the Flesland airport at Bergen was briefly closed due to strong winds (which peaked at 65 knots/33.4 meters per second). In the northern British Isles, wind gusts as strong as 70 knots/36 meters per second were reported on Shetland Island, along with thunderstorms (water vapor image with 4-letter station identifier locations).
Meteosat-10 0.8 µm High Resolution Visible images (below; click image to play animation; also available as an MP4 movie file) revealed the development of numerous showers and thunderstorms across the southern sector of the storm.
Meteosat-10 0.8 µm High Resolution Visible images (click to play animation)
A SSEC RealEarth Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image around 12:00 UTC (below) showed the storm center just off the west coast of Norway.
Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color image