Super Typhoon Jebi

August 31st, 2018 |

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

West Pacific Typhoon Jebi underwent a period of very rapid intensification on 30 August 2018 (ADT | SATCON), reaching Category 5 Super Typhoon intensity. Himawari-8 rapid-scan (2.5 minute interval) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) showed that Jebi began to exhibit an annular appearance with a nearly symmetric eyewall as it moved through the Northern Mariana Islands (north of Guam). The eye passed just south of the uninhabited volcanic island of Pagan around 16 UTC on 30 August.

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible images (below) revealed mesovortices within the eye of Jebi.

Himawari-8

Himawari-8 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Toggles between VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images from NOAA-20 and Suomi NPP (below) showed more detailed views of (1) the well defined eye, (2) surface mesovortices within the eye, and (3) storm-top gravity waves that were propagating away from the eyewall region. With the Moon in the Waning Gibbous phase (at 77% of Full), ample illumination was available to provide detailed “visible images at night” using the VIIRS DNB.

NOAA-20 Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1602 UTC [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1602 UTC [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1652 UTC [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and infrared Window (11.45 µm) images at 1652 UTC [click to enlarge]

Convective Rain Rate and Surface Rain Rate products derived from GCOM-W1 AMSR2 data (below) showed the heavy rainfall occurring within the eyewall region and a primary feeder band to the west. VIIRS and AMSR2 images courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS.

GCOM-W2 AMSR2 Convective Rain Rate and Surface Rain Rate products [click to enlarge]

GCOM-W2 AMSR2 Convective Rain Rate and Surface Rain Rate products [click to enlarge]

As Jebi tracked west-northwestward across the West Pacific, products from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site showed that it had been moving over waters having high values of Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content (below).

Track of Jebi, with Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content [click to enlarge]

Track of Jebi, with Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Content [click to enlarge]

A 48-hour animation of the MIMIC-TC product (below) showed the evolution of the Jebi from 29-31 August. The storm was completing an eyewall replacement cycle near the end of the animation, with the eye becoming distinctly larger.

MIMIC-TC product, 29-31 August

In a comparison of DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images at 1900 UTC (below), the Microwave data helped to better visualize the structure of the large eyewall in addition to a long, narrow feeder band wrapping inward toward the eye.

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Why Mesoscale Sectors Matter: Hurricane Norman

August 30th, 2018 |

GOES-16 Mesoscale Sectors over Hurricane Norman (left) and a tropical wave (right), along with a CONUS image

Pacific Hurricane Norman, a potent storm with sustained winds of 150 mph, exists outside of GOES-16’s CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain. In fact, on 30 August 2018, both GOES-16 Meso sectors were placed over the tropics to provide 1-minute imagery of tropical systems, both Norman over the Pacific, and a strong tropical easterly wave over the Atlantic and Caribbean. The toggle above shows the two positions (using visible imagery at 0.64 µm) along with the CONUS domain (using the clean window, band 13 at 10.3 µm).

The Mesoscale Sector allows 1-minute imagery over Norman. Otherwise, full-disk imagery with a time cadence of every 15 minutes would be used. The hour-long animation, below, shows the evolution of the storm and its environment.

GOES-16 ABI Band 2 Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, 2016-2115 UTC (Click to enlarge)

A closer view of the eye, below, (Click to play animated gif), shows a well-developed eye with embedded low clouds. Because Norman is near 120 W, the view angle is oblique and only the western edge of the eyewall can be viewed.

GOES-16 ABI Band 2 Visible (0.64 µm) imagery, 2016-2115 UTC (Click to animate)

Norman appears to be at the northern edge of deep tropical moisture, based on the toggle below of GOES-16 Clear Sky Total Precipitable Water and the GOES-16 infrared Low-Level Water Vapor image (7.34 µm). The projected path of Norman is mostly Westward so the storm will remain within deep tropical moisture for the next several days. It is forecast to remain a strong hurricane.

GOES-16 ABI Clear-Sky Total Precipitable Water toggled with GOES-16 Infrared Low-Level Water Vapor (7.34 µm) in cloudy skies, 2000 UTC on 30 August 2018 (Click to enlarge)

For more information on Norman, please consult the website of the National Hurricane Center or the SSEC/CIMSS Tropical Weather Website.

A Nebraska thunderstorm and a Wyoming wildfire, as viewed by GOES-15, GOES-17 and GOES-16

August 29th, 2018 |
Visible images from GOES-15 (0.63 µm, left), GOES-17 (0.64 µm, center) and GOES-16 (0.64 µm, right), with SPC storm reports plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

Visible images from GOES-15 (0.63 µm, left), GOES-17 (0.64 µm, center) and GOES-16 (0.64 µm, right), with SPC storm reports plotted in red [click to play animation | MP4]

* GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational *

A comparison of Visible images from GOES-15 (GOES-West), GOES-17 and GOES-16 (GOES-East) (above) showed an isolated thunderstorm that developed in the Nebraska Panhandle late in the day on 29 August 2018. The storm produced hail (SPC storm reports), and also exhibited an Above Anvil Cirrus Plume. The images are displayed in the native projection of each satellite, with no re-mapping.

One other feature that was seen north of the thunderstorm was smoke which was being transported eastward from the Britania Mountain Fire in southeastern Wyoming. The smoke was more apparent on the GOES-17 and GOES-16 images as forward scattering increased toward sunset.

Shortwave Infrared imagery from the 3 satellites revealed important differences affecting fire detection: namely spatial resolution and viewing angle. The 3.9 µm detector on the GOES-15 Imager has a spatial resolution of 4 km (at satellite sub-point), compared to 2 km for the GOES-16/17 ABI. Given that the fire was burning in rugged mountain terrain, the view angle from each satellite had an impact on the resulting bire brightness temperature values. For example, the first indication of very hot (red-enhanced) pixels was at 1527 UTC from GOES-16/17, vs 1715 UTC from GOES-15; at the end of the day, the very hot fire pixels were no longer seen with GOES-15 after 2300 UTC, but continued to show up in GOES-17 imagery until 0042 UTC and in GOES-16 imagery until 0122 UTC.

Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-15 (3.9 µm, left), GOES-17 (3.9 µm, center) and GOES-16 (3.9 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

Shortwave Infrared images from GOES-15 (3.9 µm, left), GOES-17 (3.9 µm, center) and GOES-16 (3.9 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

Stereoscopic Views of Convection every minute in Mesoscale Domains

August 29th, 2018 |

GOES-17 and GOES-16 Mesoscale Domains at 1616 UTC on 29 August 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-17 images shown here are preliminary and non-operational

The presence of GOES-17 data means that 4 mesoscale sectors, each taking 1-minute imagery, are over the United States. In the example above, from 1616 UTC on 29 August 2018, there is no overlap. (Note: Three of the Four are in their default locations; the Mesoscale sector over the northeast United States has been shifted north to monitor convection over New England).

On 28 August 2018, however, two mesoscale sectors overlapped over the central United States, and sampled convection developing over Oklahoma (that subsequently caused wind damage in Roger Mills County in western Oklahoma). The Stereoscopic View of that convection is shown below. To view the convection in three dimensions, cross your eyes until you see 3 images, and focus on the image in the center. An animated gif (215 Megabytes!!) is available here.

GOES-16 (Left) and GOES-17 (right) Visible (0.64) stereoscopic views of convection developing over western Oklahoma, 2000 UTC 28 August – 0118 UTC 29 August 2018 (Click image to play mp4 animation)