Hurricane Fred

August 31st, 2015 |

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 um) and Infrared (10.7 um) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-13 Visible (0.63 um) and Infrared (10.7 um) images [click to enlarge]

Tropical Storm Fred reached hurricane intensity east of the Cape Verde Islands late in the day on 30 August 2015.  As mentioned in the NHC discussion on the following morning, Fred was the first hurricane to pass through the Cape Verde Islands since 1892. While no central eye was apparent on GOES-13 (GOES-East) Visible (0.63 um) and Infrared (10.7 um) images at 0845 UTC (above), a DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image sourced from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site did reveal a small eye at 0904 UTC (below).

DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image [click to enlarge]

DMSP SSMIS 85 GHz microwave image [click to enlarge]

Later in the day, a few Tropical Overshooting Tops were analyzed using Meteosat-10 Infrared (10.8 um) imagery (below).

Meteosat-10 Infrared (10.8 um) images with overlay of Tropical Overshooting Top product [click to enlarge]

Meteosat-10 Infrared (10.8 um) images with overlay of Tropical Overshooting Top product [click to enlarge]

More information about Hurricane Fred can be found here.

Category 4 Hurricanes Kilo, Ignacio, and Jimena in the Pacific Ocean

August 30th, 2015 |

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color image composite [click to enlarge]

Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color image composite [click to enlarge]

A composite of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from the SSEC RealEarth site (above; click to enlarge) showed Hurricanes Kilo, Ignacio, and Jimena in the central and eastern North Pacific Ocean on 29 August 2015. All three of these Category 4 North Pacific hurricanes were located east of the International Dateline, which is the first such occurrence since reliable records began in the satellite era.

An animation of GOES-15 (GOES-West) Infrared (10.7 µm) images (below; click image to play animation) showed the evolution of these 3 tropical cyclones during the 29-30 August period.

GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation]

GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation]

The MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below; click image to play animation) indicated that all 3 storms were easily able to tap abundant moisture from the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

MIMIC TPW product [click to play animation]

MIMIC TPW product [click to play animation]

A longer animation of the MIMIC TPW product covering the period 21 August to 01 September is shown below.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product [click to play animation]

Heavy rain event in southeastern South Dakota

August 28th, 2015 |

GOES-13 Infrared (10.7 um) images [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Infrared (10.7 um) images [click to play animation]

A line of training thunderstorms produced heavy rainfall in parts of southeastern South Dakota on the evening of 27 August 2015, with the highest rainfall amount being 7.52 inches just southwest of Sioux Falls (Public Information Statement). 4-km resolution GOES-13 (GOES-East) 10.7 µm Infrared images (above; click to play animation) showed the development and motion of the storms that moved through the Sioux Falls (KFSD) area. The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature was -68º C (darker black color enhancement) just to the northwest of Sioux Falls on the 0115 UTC (8:15 PM local time) image. However, because of parallax resulting from the large satellite viewing angle, the actual location of that tall, cold cloud top would have been just to the southeast of Sioux Falls (the yellow + symbol on this image).

A comparison of 1-km resolution POES AVHRR Visible (0.86 µm) and Infrared (12.0 µm) images at 2330 UTC or 6:30 PM local time (below) showed the developing convective storms in greater detail. The coldest cloud-top IR brightness temperature was -73º C with the westernmost cluster of thunderstorms.

POES AVHRR Visible (0.86 m) and Infrared (12.0 um) images [click to enlarge]

POES AVHRR Visible (0.86 m) and Infrared (12.0 um) images [click to enlarge]

A closer view of the GOES-13 Infrared images with METAR surface reports is shown below. Note that Sioux Falls had a peak wind gust of 32 knots (37 mph).

GOES-13 Infrared (10.7 um) images with METAR surface reports [click to play animation]

GOES-13 Infrared (10.7 um) images with METAR surface reports [click to play animation]

The Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Percent of Normal product (below; click to play animation) showed TPW values as high as 199% of normal just to the north-northeast of Sioux Falls at 0442 UTC (11:42 PM local time).

Blended Total Precipitable Water Percent of Normal [click to play animation]

Blended Total Precipitable Water Percent of Normal [click to play animation]


 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hurricane Katrina in 2005

August 28th, 2015 |

GOES-12 10.7 µm IR images [click to play mp4 animation]

GOES-12 10.7 µm IR images [click to play mp4 animation]

August 28 2015 is the 10-year anniversary of Hurricane Katrina achieving Category 5 status (on the Saffir-Simpson Scale) in the central Gulf of Mexico. The mp4 animation above (available here as a 490 megabyte animated gif, and on YouTube) shows the evolution of Katrina from a thunderstorm cluster in the Bahamas to a weak hurricane off the west coast of Florida to a Category 5 Hurricane in the central Gulf before weakening somewhat at landfall along the central Gulf coast. (The archive of National Hurricane Center advisories is here. The post-storm write-up is here.)

GOES-12 10.7 µm IR images [click to enlarge]

GOES-12 10.7 µm IR images [click to enlarge]

GOES-12 was in service as GOES-East during Katrina’s life, and as a GOES I-M satellite it lacked batteries to allow imaging through eclipse, which occurs as the satellite passes through the Earth’s shadow (solar panels in shadow do not provide power) in the weeks surrounding the Equinoxes. The toggle above from 28 August 2005 shows the last pre-eclipse image (0402 UTC) and the first post-eclipse image (0615 UTC); considerable organization of the storm has occurred in those two hours! GOES satellites from GOES-13 on have sufficient battery capacity to provide imagery through eclipse periods (for example, see this GOES-13 vs GOES-12 comparison during the landfall of Hurricane Ike along the Texas coast in 2008).

Katrina was featured in the CIMSS GOES Gallery back in 2005 (Link).