EUMETSAT Meteosat-10 Visible (0.75 µm) and Infrared Window (10.8 µm) images (below; also available as an MP4 animation) revealed the development of thunderstorms over southern Norway during the 0900-1300 UTC period. Cloud-to-ground lightning from one of these storms is believed to have killed 323 reindeer near the southeastern corner of the Hardangervidda National Park (which is located in the center of the visible and infrared satellite images).The coldest cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures of the thunderstorms on the 1100 UTC image was -51º C, which corresponded to an altitude of around 10.5 km on the 1200 UTC Ørland rawinsonde report (below) — looking at the individual sounding profiles, Ørland to the north of Hardangervidda was still in the moist convective environment near the center of the storm system, while Stavanger to the south began to show the drier air aloft in the wake of the northeastward-moving storm. A composite of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image swaths as viewed using RealEarth (below) showed the widespread thunderstorms across southern Norway on the earlier (eastern) 1103 UTC overpass, while the later (western) 1243 UTC overpass showed the effects of the mid-level drier air that was beginning to overspread the region as the center of the parent storm system moved northeast.
The nearby Vandenberg rawinsonde data profile (below) suggests that the pyroCu clouds vertically lofted smoke to an altitude of at least 6.7 km (the 449 mb pressure level), where winds shifted to a northwesterly direction. However, since the pyroCu cloud-top IR brightness temperatures never even made it to -20º C (cyan color enhancement on the bottom panels), the smoke probably wasn’t much higher than the 6.7 km altitude (sounding data).A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color and false-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images displayed using RealEarth (below) showed the dense plume of smoke drifting westward away from the active fire area (brighter shades of pink on the false-color image), along with a pyroCu cloud over the fire and the early stage of the southeastward-moving smoke plume aloft.
A sequence of Infrared images from Terra/Aqua MODIS (11.0 µm) and Suomi NPP VIIRS (11.45 µm) (below) showed greater detail in the storm-top temperature structure at various times during the event.
===== 19 July Update =====A comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) images from before the event (09 July) and after the event (12 through 19 July) (above) revealed the large amounts of sediment flowing offshore into the southwestern portion of Lake Superior.
Another comparison of before (09 July) and after (13 through 19 July) true-color RGB images from Terra and Aqua MODIS is shown below.A toggle between a Terra MODIS Visible (0.65 µm) image and the corresponding MODIS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product on 16 July (below) showed that the SST values in the sediment-rich nearshore waters were significantly warmer (middle 60s F, red enhancement) than those found closer to the center of Lake Superior (middle 40s F, cyan enhancement).
2.5-minute interval rapid-scan Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (below) showed the formation of a well-defined eye with an annular storm structure early in the day on 07 July. The eye became less organized as Nepartak approached the island of Taiwan and made landfall as a Category 4 typhoon around 2150 UTC.Surface observations (plot | text) from Feng Nin airport (station identifier RCFN) in Taitung City showed sustained winds of 70 knots (81 mph) with a gust to 99 knots (114 mph) from the north-northeast at 21 UTC, and a pressure of 964.0 hPa (27.47″). iCyclone chaser Josh Morgerman recorded a minimum pressure of 957.7 hPa at 2043 UTC (4:43 am local time) in Taitung City:
— Josh Morgerman (@iCyclone) July 10, 2016
Shortly before landfall, a comparison of DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) and Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images around 20 UTC (below) showed that the eye was still rather distinct on the microwave image. However, the MIMIC-TC product (below) revealed how quickly the eyewall structure eroded once the circulation of Nepartak encountered the rugged terrain of Taiwan. Looking back to earlier periods in the storm history, a 2-panel comparison of Himawari-8 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images from 06-07 July (below) revealed the presence of mesovortices within the eye on the visible imagery. The spatial resolution of these Visible (0.5 km) and Infrared (2 km) AHI images is identical to what will be provided by the ABI instrument on GOES-R. A Suomi NPP VIIRS true-color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image from 07 July (viewed using RealEarth) is shown below; the actual satellite overpass time for this image was around 0444 UTC. During the period of rapid intensification on 06 July, 2.5-minute interval rapid-scan Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (below) revealed pulses of storm-top gravity waves which were propagating radially outward away from the eye of Nepartak (especially evident during the later half of the animation period). It is also interesting to note that nighttime mesospheric gravity waves could be seen propagating away from the eye/eyewall region of Nepartak at 1729 UTC or 1:29 am local time on a 06 July Suomi NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) image (below, courtesy of William Straka, SSEC). Since very little illumination was provided by the Moon (which was in the Waxing Crescent phase, at only 5% of Full), these waves were being illuminated by airglow. The MIMIC-TC product (below) also showed that Nepartak completed an eyewall replacement cycle on 06 July. Animations of 10-minute interval Himawari-8 Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images spanning nearly the entire life cycle of Nepartak — from a tropical depression south of Guam on 03 July to landfall over mainland China on 08 July — are available as an MP4 movie (139 Mbytes) or an animated GIF (493 Mbytes).