The Eye of Maria north of Hispaniola

September 21st, 2017 |

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

Hurricane Maria presented a very interesting eye structure during the course of the day on 21 September 2017, as shown in the mp4 animation above (also available as a YouTube video).  The animation shows 10.3 µm imagery every 2 minutes from 0849 UTC through 2122 UTC on 21 September 2017.

Pete Pokrandt, at the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Department, created a similar animation using the 0.64 µm Visible channel on GOES-16.

30-second interval (using overlapping 1-minute interval Mesoscale Sector) GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images covering the 6-hour period from 1031-1631 UTC are shown below. During this time, Maria re-intensified to a Category 3 hurricane, with the eye centered just off the northeastern coast of the Dominican Republic.

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images at 30-second intervals (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images at 30-second intervals (Click to animate)

For more information on Maria, visit the National Hurricane Center website.  The CIMSS Tropical Weather Website has information as well.

Hurricane Maria makes landfall in Puerto Rico

September 20th, 2017 |

GOES-16 Visible Imagery (0.64 µm), 1017-1117 UTC, at 30-second time steps, on 20 September 2017 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing.

Strong Category 4 Hurricane Maria has made landfall in Puerto Rico. According to the National Hurricane Center, landfall occurred around 1035 UTC near Yabacuo on Puerto Rico’s southeast coast. The GOES-16 30-second (using overlapping mesoscale sectors) Visible Animation, above, shows the storm as it made landfall. Maria had recently completed an Eyewall Replacement Cycle as it made landfall. The animation below, using morphed microwave imagery (from this site), shows the development of an outer eyewall and subsequent erosion of the inner eyewall during the 24 hours prior to landfall.

Morphed Microwave Imagery centered on Hurricane Maria for the 24 hours prior to landfall in Puerto Rico (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Clean Window Infrared (10.3 µm) Imagery shows a distinct eye as the storm makes landfall. Subsequently, however, the eye filled in as it moved over the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico.

GOES-16 Infrared (10.3 µm) Imagery, 0957-1136 UTC on 20 September 2017 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images (Click to play MP4 animation)

GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm, left) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm, right) images (Click to play MP4 animation)

A 2-panel comparison of GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (10.3 µm) imagery during the 1020-1620 UTC time period is shown above. It can be seen that deep eyewall convection moved over much of the island as Maria made its journey across Puerto Rico.

Suomi NPP flew over Maria early in the morning on 20 September, when the storm was near St. Croix. The toggle below shows the 11.45 µm Infrared image from VIIRS and the Day Night Band Visible (0.7 µm) Imagery. The Moon on 20 September was a New Moon, so no lunar illumination was present for the Day Night Band. The eye of the storm was nevertheless apparent in the image.  A zoomed-in Infrared image over the eye is here.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm Infrared image from VIIRS and the Day Night Band Visible (0.7 µm) Imager, 0613 UTC on 20 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Suomi NPP overflew Maria again when the storm was moving offshore from Puerto Rico, and a toggle (Visible and Infrared) below shows the storm at 1724 UTC on 20 September. Click here for a zoomed-in image (Visible) over the eye.

Suomi NPP VIIRS 11.45 µm Infrared image from VIIRS and Visible (0.64 µm) Image, 1724 UTC on 20 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

More information on Maria is available at the National Hurricane Center and at the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website.

Hurricane Maria moves across Dominica

September 19th, 2017 |

GOES-16 “Clean Window” Infrared 10.3 µm imagery, 0055 to 0414 UTC on 19 September 2017 (Click to play 161 M animated gif)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

GOES-16 ABI 10.3 µm Infrared Imagery shows the path of Category 5 Hurricane Maria’s transit across the Caribbean Island of Dominica. The compact eye moved from east-central Dominica to the northwest coast of Dominica over the course of about 2 hours late on the 18th and early on the 19th of September 2017.

===================== Added, 2130 UTC on 19 September 2017 =====================

Later in the day on 19 September, Suomi NPP overflew Category 5 Hurricane Maria. The toggle below shows the Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) imagery zoomed in over the eye. A Caribbean Basin-wide view (visible and infrared toggle) is below that. The storm displays excellent structure with strong banding and outflow and little indication of shear.  (Suomi NPP Imagery courtesy William Straka, CIMSS)

Suomi NPP Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (11.45 µm) imagery over the eye of Hurricane Maria, 1742 UTC on 19 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Suomi NPP Visible (0.64 µm) and Infrared (11.45 µm) imagery of Hurricane Maria over the eastern Caribbean, 1742 UTC on 19 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

For more on the Hurricane Maria, consult the webpages of the National Hurricane Center or the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website.

Rapid Intensification of Hurricane Maria just to the east of the Leeward Islands

September 18th, 2017 |

GOES-16 “Clean Window” Infrared 10.3 µm imagery, 1600-2017 UTC on 18 September 2017 (Click to animate). Note: The Label states GOES-17 in error, and the time annotation becomes stuck for a time.

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

Hurricane Maria underwent rapid intensification on 18 September as it moved through very warm waters to the east of the Leeward Islands. The animation of GOES-16 “Clean Window” Infrared Imagery (10.3 µm), above, shows the rapid development of a warm concentric eye between 1640 and 1940 UTC. The toggle below, between 1600 UTC and 2000 UTC, testifies to a great increase in organization and strength. Click here for an mp4 animation from 1400 UTC to 2100 UTC on 18 September showing the intensification in the Visible (0.64 µm) channel from ABI.

GOES-16 “Clean Window” Infrared 10.3 µm imagery, 1600 and 2017 UTC on 18 September 2017 (Click to enlarge). Note: The Label states GOES-17 in error.

The storm is in an environment of very low shear (below) and moving towards warm water that is quite deep as depicted by large values of Oceanic Heat Content (bottom). (Maps found at this site).

850-250 hPa wind shear, 1800 UTC on 18 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Oceanic Heat Content analysis, 1800 UTC on 18 September 2017. (Click to enlarge). Note the relative cool wake north of the Leeward Islands left behind by Hurricane Irma.

Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data over Maria for the two hours ending 2045 UTC on 18 September (from this site; click here for infrared imagery), shows lightning within the southern eyewall of the storm.

GLM Group Observations in 3-minute intervals plotted on top of GOES-16 Visible (0.64 µm) Imagery, 1830-2045 UTC on 18 September 2017 (Click to enlarge)

For more information on this dangerous storm, refer to the webpages of the National Hurricane Center, or to the CIMSS Tropical Weather website. People in the Leeward Islands in particular should pay close attention to this storm.