Stereoscopic views of Hurricane Michael

October 8th, 2018 |

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) visible (0.64 µm) imagery of Michael starting at 1147 UTC on 8 October 2018 (Click to play mp4 animation)

GOES-17 data in this post are preliminary and non-operational

CONUS (Contiguous United States) imagery at 5-minute intervals from GOES-16 at 75.2 W Longitude and GOES-17 at 89.5 W Longitude allows for Hurricane Michael to be viewed stereroscopically from space. The animation above, starting at 1142 UTC and extending to sunset, (click here for an animated gif) shows an intensifying Michael with strong convection developing over the center.  To view in three dimensions, cross you eyes until 3 images are present, and focus on the image in the center.  Very strong shear is also apparent northeast of Michael.  Low-level winds and upper-level winds do not align, and convection there is strongly tilted.  (This graphic of shear is from the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website)

Sea-surface Temperatures over the Gulf (Source), below, show abundant warm water between Michael and its project landfall location along the northeast Gulf Coast (See the National Hurricane Center for latest information).

Blended SST over the Gulf of Mexico, 7 OCtober 2018 (Click to enlarge)

The animation shows the stereoscopic view on 9 October 2018. An animated gif is available here.

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) visible (0.64 µm) imagery of Michael starting at 1147 UTC on 9 October 2018 (Click to play mp4 animation)

The animation below is shows Michael’s eye at full GOES-16/GOES-17 resolution starting at 1402 UTC on 9 October.

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) full-resolution visible (0.64 µm) imagery of Michael’s on 9 October 2018 (Click to play animated gif)

A full-resolution of Michael’s well-developed eye on 10 October is shown below.

GOES-16 (left) and GOES-17 (right) visible (0.64 µm) imagery of Michael starting at 1147 UTC on 10 October 2018 (Click to play animated gif)

Tropical Storm Michael

October 7th, 2018 |

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

1-minute Mesoscale Domain Sector GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images (above) showed deep convection associated with Tropical Depression 14 east of Belize and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico early in the day on 07 October 2018. There was a large area of cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures in the -80ºC to -89ºC range (shades of purple), with isolated small pockets of -90ºC or colder (yellow enhancement).

1-minute GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images from the UW-AOS site (below) showed numerous convective overshooting tops.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

At 1655 UTC the system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Michael — 1-minute GOES-16 Infrared images (below) showed that deep convection persisted in the eastern semicircle of Michael during the remainder of the day.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

A hint of the elongated low-level circulation could be seen just west of the deep convection on late-day GOES-16 Visible images (below).

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

===== 08 October Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm), Infrared Window (11.45 µm) and ATMS Microwave (88 GHz) images at 0721 UTC (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) indicated that a well-defined convective band was wrapping around the eastern, northern and northwestern portions of the storm center (with some bright lightning streaks showing up on the DNB image in the southeastern segment of this convective band).

In a comparison of DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images at or shortly after 1115 UTC (below), the Microwave imagery showed a very large eye beneath the convective clusters.

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to enlarge]

DMSP-18 SSMIS Microwave (86 GHz) and GOES-16 Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Michael was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane at 15 UTC; 1-minute GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images (below) revealed abundant deep convection around the core of the storm during the 3 hours leading up to that time.

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Red” Visible (0.64 µm) images [click to play MP4 animation]

Michael had been moving over very warm water since forming on 06 October; analyses of Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature (below) showed that while the hurricane was forecast to briefly pass over a region of lower OHC in the far southeastern Gulf of Mexico, the remainder of its journey across the Gulf would be over water possessing modest amounts of OHC and warm SST values of 29-30ºC.

Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature analyses, with past and forecast tracks of Michael [click to enlarge]

Ocean Heat Content and Sea Surface Temperature analyses, with past and forecast tracks of Michael [click to enlarge]

Similarly, a relatively cloud-free Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product from 0343 UTC on 06 October (below) showed SST values of 84-85ºF (darker red colors) along much of the forecast path of Hurricane Michael (issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October).

Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product (0343 UTC on 06 October) with Hurricane Michael forecast positions issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October [click to enlarge]

Terra MODIS Sea Surface Temperature product (0343 UTC on 06 October) with forecast positions of Hurricane Michael issued at 2100 UTC on 08 October [click to enlarge]

Heavy rainfall in Arizona from the remnants of Rosa

October 2nd, 2018 |

GOES-16

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, 25 September – 02 October [click to play MP4 animation]

Rosa became a Tropical Storm on 25 September 2018, and reached peak intensity as a Category 4 Hurricane on 28 September. As it gradually weakened and made landfall over Baja California on 02 October, its moisture moved across the US Desert Southwest causing heavy rainfall and flash flooding — parts of Arizona received record-setting rainfall (NWS Phoenix | NWS Flagstaff), with precipitation rates as high as 1 inch in 30 minutes in the Phoenix area. GOES-16 (GOES-East) “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images during the 8 days from 25 September to 02 October (above) showed the life cycle of Rosa.

A closer look at Rosa during that same time period is shown below. The image interval is 15 minutes, except for 5-minute imagery during a test of Mode 4 scanning strategy on 01 October (from 0000-1550 UTC).

GOES-16 "Clean" Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, 25 September - 02 October [click to play MP4 animation]

GOES-16 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.3 µm) images, 25 September – 02 October [click to play MP4 animation]

The transport of tropical moisture associated with Rosa could be followed using the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product (below). The moisture over southwestern Arizona on 02 October was >4 standard deviations above normal for that region and time of year.

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product, 25 September - 02 October [click to play MP4 animation | MP4]

MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product, 25 September – 02 October [click to play MP4 animation | MP4]

The increase in deep tropical moisture was very evident in plots of rawinsonde data from Tucson, Arizona (below) — Total Precipitable Water peaked at 43.9 mm or 1.73 inches at 12 UTC on 01 October.

Plots of rawinsonde data from Tucson, Arizona 30 September - 02 October [click to enlarge]

Plots of rawinsonde data from Tucson, Arizona 30 September – 02 October [click to enlarge]



Hurricane Walaka

October 1st, 2018 |

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 (GOES-West) Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (above) showed the formation of a well-defined eye of Hurricane Walaka during a period of rapid intensification (ADT | SATCON) from 0000-2330 UTC on 01 October 2018; Walaka was classified a Category 5 hurricane as of the 02 October 00 UTC advisory. Walaka was moving over very warm water with Sea Surface Temperatures of 30ºC.

A 1536 UTC DMSP-16 SSMIS Microwave (85 GHz) image from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (below) revealed a small eye (reported to be 20 nautical miles in diameter at 21 UTC).

DMSP-16 SSMIS (85 GHz) Microwave image [click to enlarge]

DMSP-16 SSMIS (85 GHz) Microwave image [click to enlarge]

A side-by-side comparison of JMA Himawari-8 and GOES-15 Infrared Window images (below) showed Walaka from 2 different satellite perspectives — the superior spatial resolution of Himawari-8 (2 km, vs 4 km for GOES-15) was offset by the much larger viewing angle. Cloud-top infrared brightness temperatures were -80ºC and colder (shades of violet) from both satellites early in the animation, but warmed somewhat into the -70 to -75ºC range by 00 UTC on 02 October.

Infrared Window images from Himawari-8 (10.3 µm, left) and GOES-15 (10.7 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

Infrared Window images from Himawari-8 (10.3 µm, left) and GOES-15 (10.7 µm, right) [click to play animation | MP4]

===== 02 October Update =====

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images [click to enlarge]

Walaka remained classified as a Category 5 hurricane until the 15 UTC advisory on 02 October, when it was assigned Category 4 status after some weakening as a result of an overnight eyewall replacement cycle. A toggle between NOAA-20 VIIRS Day/Night Band (0.7 µm) and Infrared Window (11.45 µm) images (above; courtesy of William Straka, CIMSS) showed the storm at 1240 UTC or 2:40 am local time.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images (below) showed the northward motion of Waleka. Given that the storm was forecast to pass very close to Johnston Atoll, the US Coast Guard was dispatched to evacuate personnel on Johnston Island.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images; the white circle shows the location of Johnston Atoll [click to play animation | MP4]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) images; the white circle shows the location of Johnston Atoll [click to play animation | MP4]

The MIMIC-TC product (below) showed the eyewall replacement cycle during the 0000-1445 UTC period.

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave product [click to play animation]

MIMIC-TC morphed microwave product [click to play animation]

Around 1830 UTC, a toggle between GOES-15 Infrared (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images (below) showed a small eye, with evidence of a larger outer eyewall suggesting that another eyewall replacement cycle was taking place.

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images [click to enlarge]

GOES-15 Infrared Window (10.7 µm) and GPM GMI Microwave (85 GHz) images [click to enlarge]