September 11th, 2010
GOES-13 10.7 Âµm IR images
Hurricane Igor became the 4th hurricane of the season in the Atlantic Basin late in the day on 11 September 2010. GOES-13 10.7 Âµm IR images from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site (above) displayed an increasingly organized structure to the convection surrounding the center of the storm. Igor existed in an environment of low deep layer wind shear, which was a favorable factor for further intensification.
The development of a few convective bursts near the center of Igor’s circulation could be seen on GOES-13 0.63 Âµm visible images (below), suggesting the formation of an eyewall.
GOES-13 0.63 Âµm visible images
A 22:56 UTC microwave image from the SSMI/S instrument (below) revealed a well-defined convective ring around the center of Igor.
SSMI/S 85 GHz mircrowave brightness temperature
September 10th, 2010
GOES-11 / GOES-15 / GOES-13 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR images
A large natural gas explosion occurred in San Bruno, California on the evening of 09 September 2010, which killed 4 people and destroyed 38 homes. McIDAS images of GOES-11 (GOES-West), GOES-15, and GOES-13 (GOES-East) 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR channel data (above) showed the resulting fire “hot spots” (black to yellow color enhancement) during the 01:00 UTC to 04:00 UTC time period (6 pm to 9 pm local time).
The plot below shows that the maximum 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR pixel brightness temperatures were seen on the 01:15 UTC (6:15 pm local time) GOES-15 and GOES-13 images, and 30 minutes later at 01:45 UTC (6:45 pm local time) on the GOES-11 images.
Plot of GOES-11, GOES-15, and GOES-13 3.9 Âµm IR brightness temperatures
A comparison of the 1-km resolution NOAA-16 AVHRR 3.7 Âµm and the 4-km resolution GOES-11 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR images (below) showed the fire hot spot (black pixels) around 02:00 UTC (7:00 pm local time). Note the more accurate placement of the fire hot spot on the AVHRR image — San Bruno is located more toward the eastern side of the San Francisco Peninsula.
NOAA-16 AVHRR 3.7 Âµm shortwave IR and GOES-11 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR images
AWIPS images of the 1-km resolution MODIS 3.7 Âµm shortwave IR channel and the 4-km resolution GOES-11 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR data around 06:00 UTC (11:00 pm local time) can be seen below. Although no fire hot spot was evident on the GOES-11 image, a small cluster of yellow pixels could still be seen on the MODIS image.
MODIS 3.7 Âµm shortwave IR and GOES-11 3.9 Âµm shortwave IR images
September 4th, 2010
GOES-13 6.5 Âµm water vapor images (with surface fronts analyses)
AWIPS images of the GOES-13 6.5 Âµm water vapor channel data (above) showed Hurricane / Tropical Storm Earl as it moved inland across the Canadian Maritime provinces on 04 September – 05 September 2010. However, at the same time a large mid-latitude cyclone was intensifying over far western Quebec — and the water vapor imagery began to display what appeared to be a warm conveyor belt signature (below) that stretched northwestward across Quebec and over Hudson Bay. It was somewhat surprising to see such a warm conveyor belt signature develop so close to the proximity of the back edge of the cloud shield of Earl.
GOES-13 water vapor image (with surface front analysis)
The GFS40 model winds within the 315-325 K isentropic layer (below) indicated that there was a strong 60-knot jet moving across the region where the warm conveyor belt signature formed on the water vapor imagery.
GOES-13 water vapor image + GFS 315-325 K layer winds
A pair of 1-km resolution MODIS 6.7 Âµm water vapor images (below) showed greater detail of the structure of the warm conveyor belt signature as it was forming.
MODIS 6.7 Âµm water vapor images
A sequence of four 1-km resolution POES AVHRR 10.8 Âµm IR images (below) showed the banding structure that was forming within the conveyor belt feature.
AVHRR 10.8 Âµm IR images
September 2nd, 2010
Morphed Microwave Imagery
Morphed Microwave Imagery (MIMIC), above, shows the evolution of the structure of Earl’s eye over the past 48 hours as Earl has strengthened from a Category 3 storm back to Category 4.
POES AVHRR 0.63 Âµm visible and 10.8 Âµm IR images
An AWIPS view of NOAA-16 AVHRR imagery (0.63 and 10.8 micron data, including ocean buoy reports) from just past 1200 UTC on 2 September, above, shows a well-defined eye nearly surrounded by convective clusters with temperatures near -75 C.
The northwestward motion of Hurricane Earl could be seen in a sequence of AWIPS images of POES AVHRR 10.8 Âµm IR and MODIS 11.0 Âµm IR data (below).
POES AVHRR 10.8 Âµm IR and MODIS 11.0 Âµm IR images
The visible imagery loop from this morning (below; also available as a QuickTime movie) from GOES-15 shows a steady motion just west of north.
GOES-15 0.63 Âµm visible channel images
Click here for a true-color image of Earl derived from Terra MODIS data.